MARTINDALE'S

LANGUAGE & TRANSLATION CENTER



U.S.: Thursday, December 18, 2014
Sydney, Australia: Friday, December 19, 2014


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~ Includes over "2,300" Languages ~

Language Dictionaries & Encyclopedias;


Word & Text-to-Speech (TTS); Word, Text & Website Translation;

Basic, First Year, Intermediate & Advanced Courses;

Writing & Stroke Demonstrations; Language Keyboards;

Grammar, Phonetics, Reading & Writing Lessons; Literature; Poetry; etc.


Note:
Number of Speakers, Writing Script, Where Language Spoken Provided by
Ethnologue (SIL), Individual Countries Population & Languages Census, Individual Linguists, etc.


LANGUAGES WORLD WIDE
(Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)




Global Language Network &
Voice & Photo Translator Apps for Phones, Tablets, etc.


Indigenous Languages of U.S. & Canada
Indigenous Languages of Mexico, Central America & South America
Indigenous Languages of Australia




LANGUAGES WORLD WIDE: A-G

Abkhaz, Adygea, Adyghe Aghul, Akhvakh, Andi, Avar, Bagvalin, Bats, Bezhta,
Botlikh, Budukh, Chamalal, Dargwa, Ghodoberi, Hinukh, Hunzib, Kabardian, Karata,
Khinalug, Khvarshi, Lak, Lezgi, Mingrelian, Rutul, Svan, Tabassaran, Tindi, Tsakhur, Tsez, Udi



Albanian (Tosk, Gheg, Arbëreshë, Arvanitika) ~ Altai


Arabic
& Egyptian Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Hassaniyya Arabic (Hassānīy Arabic),
Iraqi Arabic (Mesopotamian Arabic), Jordanian Arabic (South Levantine),
Moroccan Arabic (Darija), Najdi Aarbic (Saudi Arabia), Sudanese Arabic,
Syrian Arabic (North Levantine), Tunisian Arabic, Yemeni Arabic



Aramaic - Syriac, Assyrian - Akkadian, Demotic, Phoenician, Sumerian,
Old Bulgar, Thracian, Ugaritic, Cuneiform Tablets, Vindolanda Tablets



African Languages
Languages of Africa (over "250" Languages)



Archi ~ Armenian ~ Austronesian Languages ~ Azerbaijani (North, South)


Baluchi (Balochi)
(Eastern Balochi, Southern Balochi & Western Balochi)


Bashkir ~ Basque (Euskara) ~ Belarusian (Belarusan) ~ Bengali or Bengla

Berber Languages
(Central Morocco Tamazight, Tamazight,
Amazigh (Amazighe), Kabyle, Tachelhit, Chenoua,
Nafusi, Tachawit, Tarifit, Tumzabt, etc.)


Bosnian (Bosanski) ~ Brahui ~ Bru (Eastern & Western)

Bulgarian ~ Buryat (Buriat) ~ Burmese, Wa (Parauk Wa & Vo Wa), Khumi, Shan & Mon


Cambodian (Khmer) ~ Cham (Eastern & Western) ~ Chamorro (Chamoru) ~ Chechen & Ingush


Chinese
(Mandarin, Cantonese, Hakka,
Min Nam & Taiwanese, Shanghai (Shanghainese),
Teochew (Chaozhou, Diojiu), Wu, Classical Chinese (Guangyun, Kangxi, etc.)
Chinese Dialects (Beijing, Jinan, Xi'an, Taiyuan, Hankou, Chengdu, etc.)



Chukchi (Chukot, Chukchee) ~ Chuvash ~ Coptic


Creole
Haitian Creole;
Hawai'ian Creole English & Hawaiian Pidgin);
Cajun French, French Creole & Louisiana Creole;
Jamaican Creole English (Patois, Limón Creole English, Panamanian Creole English);
Papiamentu (Papiamento);
Sea Island Creole English (Gullah)



Cretan Hieroglyphs ~ Croatian (Hrvatski) ~ Czech (Český)


Danish (Dansk) ~ Dari ~ Dhivehi ~ Domari

Dutch (Nederlands) & Belgian Dutch (Het Belgische Nederlands)


East Timor Languages
(Fataluku, Makuva, Mambae, Oirata, Tetun, Waimaha (Wai ma'a))


Egyptology (Hieroglyphics) ~ Enets ~ English & Old English

Erzya ~ Estonian (Eestlane) ~ Etruscan ~ Evenki


Faroese (Føryskt) ~ Fijian

Finnish (Suomi) ~ French (Français) & Old French ~ Frisian (Frysk) ~ Friulan (Friulian, Frulan)

Federated States of Micronesia Languages
(Chuukese, Kosraean, Pingelapese, Pohnpeian, Satawalese, Yapese)


Formosan Languages (Taiwan)
(Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Kanakanavu, Kavalan,
Paiwan, Pazih, Rukai, Sakizaya, Saisiya, Tsou, Yami)


French Polynesia Languages
(Marquesan, Tahitian, Tuamotuan)



Gagauz ~ Georgian ~ German (Deutsch) & Old German ~ Gothic ~ Greenlandic

Greek (Ελληνικα)
(Ancient, Classical, Biblical, New Testament, Modern)


Gaelic
Irish (Gaeilge & Gaelic) ~ Manx Gaelic (Gaelg) ~ Scottish, Scots & Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig)




LANGUAGES WORLD WIDE: H-R

Hawaiian ('Olelo Hawai'i) ~ Hebrew & Yiddish

Hittite, Carian, Luvian, Lycian, Lydian & Phygian (Anatolian Languages)

Hmong (White Miao Language, Njua Hmong Language, etc.)

Hungarian (Magyar)

Himalayan Languages
(Primarily the Languages of Bhutan & Nepal)

(Chantyal, Dumi, Dzongkha, Jero, Kham, Kiranti, Koyi Rai, Kulung, Kusunda,
Limbu, Nar Phu, Nepali, Newari, Rajbanshi, Thulung Rai, Tibeto-Burman, Wambule)


Icelandic (Íslenska)


Languages of Indonesia
(Indonesian, Abui, Aceh (Acehese), Balinese (Bali), Dayak Ngaju (Ngaju), Duri, Javanese (Java),
Kerinci, Konjo & Bugis, Makassarese (Makassar), Sula, Samawa (Sumbawa), Thong Boi (Bahasa Bangka))


Italian (Italiano) & Sicilian ~ Itelmen



Languages of India
(Angami (Angami Naga), Assamese,
Badaga, Bengali (Bengla), Bhili (Bhilodi), Bhojpuri, Bodo (Boro), Bondo (Remo, Remosam),
Darma (Darmiya), Dogri, Galo, Great Andamanese, Gujarati, Hindi, Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Ho,
Kachari (Cachari, Dimasa, Dimasa Kachari, Hills Kachar),
Kannada, Kashmiri, Kharia,
Kokborok (Kok Borok, Tripuri, Kokbarak), Konkani, Kurukh (Kurux, Kurukh/Oraon),
Lushai (Mizo), Magahi (Magadhi), Maithili, Malayalam,
Manipuri (Meitei, Meiteilon), Marathi, Mundari,
Nisi (Nyishi, Nissi, Dafla), Oriya, Pali, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Sanskrit, Santali,
Saurashtra (Saurashtra/Saurash, Sourashtra), Shom Pen, Sora (Savara),
Tamil, Telugu, Toda, Tulu, Urdu)

Languages of Central India (Examples)
(Juang, Kharia, Korku, Kom, Kumauni, Lahnda,
Rabha, Thadou, Wancho, etc.)


Languages of North-Eastern India (Examples)
(Ao, Apatani, Bori, Chakesang, Chokri, Dimasa, Garo, Hmar,
Karbi, Khamti, Khasi, Koch, Kuki, Liangmei, Miji, Mishmi, Monpa,
Nocte, Phakial, Phom, Rabha, Rengma, Riang, Sangtam,
Tangkhul, Tangsa, Zeliang, etc.)


Languages of India
in other Sections of the Language Center




Languages of Iran
(Avestan, Zoroastrianism, Old Iranian, Old Persian, Middle Persian, Pahlavi)
(Elamite) (Farsi, Persian)

Languages of Iran
in other Sections of the Language Center




Japanese & Classical Japanese


Kalmyk (Kalmyk-Oirat, Oirat, Western Mongol)

Karachay-Balkar (Qarachaymalqar) ~ Karaim ~ Karakalpak

Karen (Sgaw Karen) ~ Kazakh ~ Ket ~ Khakas(s) ~ Khanty ~ Khinalug

Kiribati (Gilbertese) ~ Komi (Komi-Zyrian) ~ Korean ~ Koryak ~ Kumyk

Kurdish (Kurmanji, Soranî & Central) ~ Kyrgyz (Kirghiz)


Ladin ~ Lahu ~ Lao (Laotian) ~ Latin (Latinus) ~ Latvian (Latviešu)

Laz (Lazuri) ~ Lebanese (Arabic - North Levantine)

Lithuanian (Lietuviškai) ~ Luxembourgeois (Luxembourgish, Lëtzebuergesch, Luxembourgian)


Macedonian ~ Malagasy ~ Malay (Bahasa Melayu) ~ Maori (Māori) ~ Maltese (Malti)

Manchu ~ Mansi ~ Mari (Meadow Mari & Hill Mari) ~ Marshallese

Maya Hieroglyps & Mesoamerica Languages

Mongolian (Halh Mongolian - Монгол улс; Peripheral Mongolian - Inner Mongolian)

Morisyen (Mauritian Creole, Kreol Morisien)


Languages of Nuristân
(Vâs'i, Kâta, Kom, Mum'o, âSkunu, Sanu, gRâmsanâ, kalaSa, Tregâmi, Kâmv'iri)



Nanai ~ Nenets (Yurak, Yurak Samoyed, Tundra, Forest) ~ Nivkh

Nganasan ~ Nogai (Nogay) ~ Norwegian (Norsk, Nynorsk & Bokmål)

Nuosu (Nuosu Yi, Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, Sichuan Yi)


Occitan (Provençal, Langue d'oc) ~ Ossetian (Osetin, Ossetic)

Old Norse
(Old Icelandic, Old Norwegion, Old Swedish, Old Danish, Old Gotlandic,
Medieval Norse, Old West Norse, Old East Norse, Old Gutnish, Gotar)



Languages of Pakistan
(Language located throughout the Language Center)

(Baluchi (Balochi), Brahui, Gujarati, Pashto, Punjabi,
Seraiki (Saraiki, Siraiki) & Multani, Sindhi, Urdu)


Languages of Papua New Guinea
(Tok Pisi, Ambulas, Angave (Ankave),
Baruya, Benabena, Bukiyip (Mountain Arapesh), Bunama,
Fasu (Námo Mē), Gimi, Guhu-Samene, Hakö, Iamalele,
Kamano-Kafe (Kamano), Kanite, Kele, Kewa, Maisin, Melpa, Mende, Mengen, Muyuw,
Nehan, Oksapmin, Papapana, Rumu,
Sinaugoro, Siroi, Solos, Sudest, Tifal, Titan, Torau,
Uruava (Poraka), Waffa, Wahgi, Walsa (Waris), Wantoat,
Biliau, Bergam, Benabena, Gadsup, Girawa, Managalasi,
Nehan, Somba-Siawari, Suena, etc.)



Pali ~ Pashto (Pushto) ~ Pattani Malay ~ Polish (Polski)

Portuguese (Português - European & Brazilian)


Rohingya ~ Romani (Romany, Gypsy)


Romanian (Român) ~ Romansh (Rumansch) ~ Rotuman ~ Russian




LANGUAGES WORLD WIDE: S-Z

Languages of Suriname

Sakha (Yakut)

Sámi - Saami
(North Sámi, South Sámi, Lule Sámi,
Ume Sámi, Inari Sámi, Skolt Sámi, Kildin Sámi
Pite Sámi, Akkala Sámi, Ter Sámi)


Samoan ~ Scottish (Lallans) ~ Selkups & Northern Selkups

Seraiki (Saraiki, Siraiki, Sira'iki) & Multani ~ Serbian (Srpski)

Shor ~ Sindhi ~ Sinhala (Sinhalese, Singhalese) ~ Slovak (Slovenský) ~ Slovenian (Slovenski)

Languages of the Solomon Islands
(Cheke Holo, Kokota, Roviana, Simbo)


Spanish (Español), Asturian, Catalan, Galician & Valencian

Swedish (Svenska)


Tagalog, Filipino and
over "80" other Languages of the Philippines
including:
Agusan Manobo, Bicolano, Binukid, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ifugao Tuwali,
Ilocano (Ilokano), Kapampangan, Khinina-ang Bontok, Maguindanao, Mansaka, Maranao,
Pangasinan, Pangutaran Sama, Tina Sambal, Waray (Waray-Waray)
Aklanon, Bikol, Buhi Bicol, Gaddang, Ibanag, Isinay,
Itawes, Ivantan, Kinaray-A, Masbateño, Tausug, Yogad
Agutaynen, Ayta Abenlen, Balangao, Bantoanon, Blaan, Caluyanun, Ga'dang, Ibatan,
Kaagan-Kalagan, Kalinga, Kankanae, Mamanwa, Manobo, Sama, Tboli, Yakan, etc.



Tai Languages
Tai Nüa (Tai Dehong), Tai Dam (Black Tai), Tai Lü (Tai Lue, Lü, Lue)


Tajiki (Tajik, Galcha) ~ Tat Languges (Judeo-Tat & Muslim Tat) ~ Tatar & Crimean Tatar

Thai ~ Tibetan ~ Tocharian ~ Tofa (Tofalar, Karagas) ~ Tongan ~ Tujia

Turkish (Türkçe) & Ottoman Turkish ~ Turkmen ~ Tuva (Tyva, Tuvinian, Tuvan) ~ Tzotzil


Udmurt ~ Uighur (Uyghur) ~ Ukrainian ~ Uzbek (Northern & Southern)


Vanuatu Languages
Araki, Bislama, Malo (Tamambo),
Mosina (Vurës), Motiav (Mwotlap), Nume, South Efate, etc.



Vietnamese


Welsh (Cymraeg)


Yaghnobi (Yagnob) ~ Yi (Sichuan Yi, Nuosu, Nuosu Yi, Northern Yi)


Yukaghir (Kolyma Yukaghir, Tundra Yukaghir)


Zazaki (Dimli, Zaza)





INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF U.S. & CANADA

Abenaki, Western Abnaki, Eastern Abnaki, Penobscot

Achumawi (Pit River) ~ Ahtna (Athena, Cooper River) ~ Alabama ~ Aleut ~ Algonquin ~ Alutiiq

Apache
(Western Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache, Lipan Apache, Kiowa Apache, Jicarilla Apache)
& Yavapai


Arapaho ~ Arikara ~ Atakapa ~ Athabaskan ~ Atsugewi


Biloxi, Ofo & Tunica ~ Blackfoot, Siksika (Niitsipussin)


Caddo ~ Cahto & Wailaki ~ Cahuilla

Carrier, Dakelh, Chilcotin, Lheidli, Nak'albun,
Saik'uzi, Nadleh Whut'en, Sekani, Tsilhqot'in (Xeni Gwet'in), Wet'suwet'en


Catawba ~ Cayuga ~ Chemehuevi ~ Cherokee ~ Cheyenne ~ Chickasaw, Chikasha ~ Chimariko

Chinook (Chinuk Wawa, Kiksht, Clackama), Kathlamet & Wasco-Wishram (Upper Chinook, Wishham)

Chipewyan, Dene, Sarsi, North Slavey (Slave), South Slavey (Slave)

Chitimacha

Chiwere, Iowa-Oto, Ioway-Otoe, Ioway Otoe-Missouri & Oto

Choctaw

Chumash, Inezeño (Ineseño), Ventureño, Barbareño, Cruzeño, Obispeño, Purisimeño

Cocopa ~ Coeur D'Alene ~ Columbia-Wenatchi ~ Comanche ~ Cowlitz

Cree
(East Cree, Maskwacis Plains Cree, Saskatchewan Plains Cree,
Swampy Cree, Woods Cree, Wookland Cree)


Creek, Muskcogee, Muskokee, Mvskok & Miccosukee

Crow ~ Cupeño


Dakota ~ Lakota ~ Nakota (Assiniboine)

Deg Xinag (Deg Hit'an, Degexit'an, Ingalit, Ingalik)

Dena'ina (Tanaina) ~ Diegueño ~ Ditidaht (Diidiitidq, Nitinaht) ~ Dogrib


Esselen ~ Eyak


Fernandeño Tataviam


Gabrieliño (Tongva) ~ Gitxsan, Gitksan, Gitksen, Gitsenimx ~ Gros Ventre & Atsina

Gwich'in, Kutchin, Loucheux, Kitchin, Kutchin-Loucheux, Fort Yukon Gwich'in


Haida, Hlgaagilda Xaayda Kil, Hyda, Skidegate & Masset(t) ~ Haisla ~ Hän

Hanis, Hanis Coos, Coos, Milluk, Siuslawan (Siuslaw & Lower Umpqua)

Havasupai ~ Hiaki, Yaqui ~ Hidatsa ~ Ho-Chunk (Hoocąk, Winnebago)

Holikachuk ~ Hopi ~ Hualapai (Walapai) ~ Hupa

Hulquminum, Hul'qumi'num, Halkomelem (Upriver, Downriver, and Island), Halq'eméylem


Innu-aimun, Montagnais

Inuit Languages
Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, Western Canadian Inuktitut,
North Alaskan Inuktitut, Inuttut, Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuk, Inuinnaq
Inupiat, Inupiatun, Iñupiatun, Inupiaq, Iñupiaq, Inyupiaq,
Iñupiat, Inyupiat, Inyupeat, Inyupik, Inupik
Eskimo, North Alaskan Inupiatun,
Inupiat, North Alaskan Inuktitut, Northwest Alaska Inupiatun, etc.



Juaneño


Kalispel, Kalispel-Pend D'oreille, Salish-Pend d'Oreille

Kanza ~ Karankawa ~ Karuk (Karok) & Shasta ~ Kaska

Kawaiisu, Tehachapi, Nuooah ~ Kickapoo ~ Kiowa ~ Klahoose ~ Klallam (Clallam)

Klamath & Modoc ~ Koasati (Coushatta) ~ Koyukon (Denaakk'e)

Kumeyaay, Diegueño, Ipai, Tipai ~ Kutenai, Kootenai & Ktunaxa

Kwakiutl, Kwak'wala, Kwaguiutl, Lekwala (Southern Dialect of Kwak'wala)


Lenape, Delaware, Unami

Lillooet, Lil'wat, St'át'imcets, Northern St'át'imcets, Ucwalmicwts

Luiseño ~ Lushootseed, Whulshootseed, Twulshootseed


Mahican (Mohican)

Maidu: Northeast Maidu (Mountain), Northwest Maidu (Konkow), Valley Maidu)

Makah

Maliseet, Malecite-Passamaquoddy - Maliseet-Passamaquoddy, Passamaquoddy

Mandan ~ Maricopa

Menominee, Mamaceqtaw ~ Meskwaki, Sauk, Fox

Miami, Miami-Illinois, Myaamia, Illinois-Miami, Miami-Peoria

Michif, French Cree, Michif-Cree ~ Micmac, Mi'kmaq, Mi'kmaw, Mi'gmaq-Mi'kmaq

Miwok
Coast Miwok, Central Sierra Miwok, Lake Miwok
Northern Sierra Miwok, Plains Miwok, Southern Sierra Miwok


Mohave, Mojave, Hamakhav ~ Mohawk, Kanien'kéha

Mohegan ~ Molalla ~ Mono


Narragansett (Nipmuc) ~ Naskapi ~ Natchez

Navajo ~ Nez Perce, Nimiipuutimt & Cayuse ~ Nisenan ~ Nisga'a ~ Nisqually

Nlaka'pamux (Thompson, Nlaka'pamuxtsn, Nitlakapamuk, Ntlakyapamuk)

Nooksack (Lhéchalosem) ~ Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) ~ Nuxalk (Bella Coola)


Ohlone, Costanoan, Chochenyo, Mutsun, Rumsen (Runsien), San Carlos, Southern Ohlone

Ojibwa, Ojibwe, Chippewa, Saulteaux, Ottawa,
Odawa, Ojibway, Anishinaabemowin, Otchipwe,
Saulteaux, Nakawe, Nishnaabewin, Westerm Ojibwa


Okanagan ~ Omaha & Ponca ~ Oneida ~ Onondaga ~ O'odham, Papago, Pima ~ Osage


Paiute, Paviotso & Bannock ~ Panamint, Tümpisa, Timbisha, Timbisha Shoshone

Pawnee, Skiri Pawnee, South Band Pawnee

Pomo Languages
Eastern Pomo (Bahtssal), Northeastern Pomo, Southern Pomo, Central Pomo, Southeastern Pomo (Kashaya)


Potawatomi ~ Powhatan


Quapaw ~ Quechan & Yuma ~ Quileute ~ Quinault


Saanich

Sahaptin & Yakama Sahaptin ~ Salinan ~ Salish & Hul'qumi'num (Hul'q'umi'num, Halkomelem)

Secwepemc, Shuswap ~ Seneca ~ Serrano ~ Shawnee ~ Shoalwater Bay

Shoshoni (Shoshone) (Sosoni', Newe Daigwape) ~ Siletz Dee-Ni (Siletz) ~ Sliammon (Comox) ~ Snohomish


T'aat'aaqsapa (Ehattesaht Nuchatlaht)

Tagish ~ Tanacross ~ Tanana (Upper & Lower) ~ Tillamook ~ Tlingit

Tolowa (Smith River, Chasta Costa) ~ Tonkawa

Tsek'ene ~ Tsimshian, Sm'algyax, Sm'álgyax, Shm-algyack

Tsuut'ina (Sarcee) ~ Tubatulabal (Paka'anil, Tübatulabal) ~ Tuscarora ~ Tutchone (Northern & Southern)

Tutelo & Saponi ~ Tututni & Coquille


Upper Kuskokwim ~ Ute


Wampanoag (Massachusett(s), Natick, Pokanoket)

Wandat, Huronne-Wendat, Huron, Wendat, Wyandot

Wappo ~ Washo ~ Wichita ~ Willapa

Wintum (Wintu, Witu, Nomlaki, Patwin, Hill Patwin, South Patwin) ~ Wiyot


Yokuts (Chukchansi, Tachi, Yowlumne) ~ Yuchi (Euchee) ~ Yuki

Yup'ik, Yupik, Central Yupik, Cup'ik, Nunivak, Little Diomede & Kotzebue

Yurok


Zuni, Towa, Tiwa, Tewa, Keres & Acoma
(Pueblo Languages)




North American Indian Sign Language

North American Recognized Indian Nations, Tribes, & First Nations





LANGUAGES OF AFRICA



AFRICAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN MORE THAN ONE COUNTRY
(Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)



Afar (Afaraf) ~ Afrikaans ~ Akan


Baatonum ~ Bedawiyet (Beja, Tu Bdhaaei)


Chadic Languages
(Baka, Bura, Kirya, Lagwan Kotoko, Mofu, Muyang, Quldeme, Vame,
Chakfem, Dyarim, Gere, Goji, Gyzai, Miya, Mwaghavul, Ngas, Ron, Warji, Zul & Mesa)



Chichewa (Chewa, Chinyanja) ~ Cokwe (Chokwe) ~ Dagaare ~ Dholuo (Luo) ~ Diriku


Dogon Languages & Bangime (Bangeri Me)
(Jamsay, Walo, Beni, Nanga, Tiranige-Diga, Tommo-So, Mombo, Tengu-Kan, etc.)



Ewe (Éwé) ~ Fang ~ Fula Languages (Fulfulde, Pular, Pulaar) ~ Gbaya


Haillom ~ Hausa ~ Ikalanga (Kalanga) ~ Jul"hoan (Zhul'Hõasis)


Kanuri ~ Kinande (Nande, Konzo)

Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) ~ Kirundi ~ Kissi (Kisi, Kìsìéé) ~ Klao (Klaoh) ~ Koromfe


Lingala & Munukutuba (Kituba)


Luyia Languages (Luhya, Luluhya)
(Idakho, Isukha, Kabarasi, Khayo, Kisa, Logoori, Luluhya, Luragoli,
Nyala West, Nyore, Saamia, Tachoni, Tiriki, Tsotso, Tura, Wanga)



Maa - Maasai (Masai, IlKeekonyokie, IlPurko, IlWuasinkishu) and Samburu


Mandinka ~ Manya (Mandingo, Mãniyakã) ~ Mbukushu ~ Mòoré (Moore)


Nama (KhoeKhoegowab, Khoekhoe) ~ Nzema ~ Nobiin (Nubian)


Oromo (Afan Oromo, Afaan Oromoo)


Sakun ~ Sängö (Sango) ~ Serer-Sine ~ Setswana (Tswana) ~ Shona (chiShona) ~ siSwati


Somali (Afsoomaali)


Songhay Languages
(Humburi Senni, Dendi, Garyey, Koyraboro Senni, Koyra Chiini, etc.)



Sotho (Sesotho) ~ Susu ~ Swahili & Sheng (Kiswahili)


Tigre (Tigré)

Tigrinya (Tigrina, Tigrigna) ~ Tumbuka (Chitumbuka) ~ Tsonga ~ Turkana & Teso (Ateso)


Vai ~ Venda ~ Wolof (Wollof) ~ Xhosa ~ !Xóõ (Taa) ~ Yao ~ Yeyi ~ Yorùbá


Zaghawa ~ Zulu



AFRICAN LANGUAGES SPECIFIC TO ONE COUNTRY,

NATIONAL LANGUAGES/OFFICAL LANGUAGES,

LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN OTHER COUNTRIES, ETC.

(Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)




ALGERIA

Languages Specific to Algeria


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Algeria and other Countries




ANGOLA

Languages Specific to Angola


Kimbundu (Kimbundol) ~ Umbundu (M'bundo)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Angola and other Countries




BENIN

Languages Specific to Benin


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Benin and other Countries




BOTSWANA

Languages Specific to Botswana


ǂHua

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Botswana and other Countries




BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

Languages Specific to the British Indian Ocean Territory


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in the British Indian Ocean Territory and other Countries




BURKINA FASO

Languages Specific to Burkina Faso


Kasem (Kassem) ~ Cerma ~ Ninkare ~ Sissala

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Burkina Faso and other Countries




BURUNDI

Languages Specific to Burundi


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Burundi and other Countries




CAMEROON

Languages Specific to Cameroon


Badwe's ~ Basaa (Basaá, Bisaa) (Basaa of Cameroon) ~ Esimbi ~ Kenyang ~ Kom ~ Koonzime

Mukary Kotoko ~ Mbodomo ~ Mbuko ~ Merey ~ Mkaa' ~ Mpyemo

Ngie ~ Ngomba ~ Ngwe ~ Ngwo ~ Njyem ~ Nomaande ~ Ouldémé ~ Tuki

Yambetta ~ Yangben (Nuasue) ~ Zulgo

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Cameroon and other Countries




CAPE VERDE ISLANDS

Languages Specific to Cape Verde Islands


Kabuverdianu

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Cape Verde Islands and other Countries




CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Languages Specific to Central African Republic


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Central African Republic and other Countries




CHAD

Languages Specific to Chad


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Chad and other Countries




COMOROS

Languages Specific to Comoros


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Comoros and other Countries




CONGO (REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO)

Languages Specific to the Congo (Republic of the Congo)


Koyo (Ekoyo, Kouyou)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in the Congo (Republic of the Congo) and other African Countrie




CÔTE D'IVOIRE (IVORY COAST)

Languages Specific to Côte d'Ivoire


Bakwé ~ Ega

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Côte d'Ivoire and other Countries




DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (DRC)

Languages Specific to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)


Cilubà ~ Lega ~ Lendu

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and other Countries




DJIBOUTI

Languages Specific to Djibouti


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Djibouti and other Countries




EGYPT

Languages Specific to Egypt


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Egypt and other Countries




EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Languages Specific to Equatorial Guinea


Fernando Po Creole English (Pichi)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Equatorial Guinea and other Countries




ERITREA

Languages Specific to Eritrea


Blin (Bilen)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Eritrea and other Countries




ETHIOPIA

Languages Specific to Ethiopia


Amharic ~ Dizin (Dizi) ~ Koegu ~ Mursi ~ Oromo, West Central ~ Suri

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Ethiopia and other Countries




GABON

Languages Specific to Gabon


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Gabon and other Countries




GAMBIA

Languages Specific to Gambia


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Gambia and other Countries




GHANA

Languages Specific to Ghana


Avatime ~ Awutu-Efutu ~ Cherepon ~ Dagbani ~ Dompo

Ga ~ Gua (Anum) ~ Krache ~ Larteh ~ Logba
Nafaanra ~ Nikonya ~ Sekpele ~ Siwu

Twi (Akwapem Twi, Ashante Twi), Asante & Fante

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Ghana and other Countries




GUINEA

Languages Specific to Guinea


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Guinea and other Countries




GUINEA BISSAU

Languages Specific to Guinea Bissau


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Guinea Bissau and other Countries




KENYA

Languages Specific to Kenya


Bukusu ~ Dahalo ~ Ekegusii ~ Gikuyu ~ Kamba

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Kenya and other Countries




LESOTHO

Languages Specific to Lesotho


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Lesotho and other Countries




LIBERIA

Languages Specific to Liberia


Bassa (Bassa Language of Liberia) ~ Kpelle ~ Loma (Lorma)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Liberia and other Countries




LIBYA

Languages Specific to Libya


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Libya and other Countries




MADAGASCAR

Languages Specific to Madagascar


Malagasy
& Malagasy Dialects including:
Antankarana, Bara, Betsimisaraka, Sakalava, Tanosy, Tsimihety, etc.


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Madagascar and other Countries




MALAWI

Languages Specific to Malawi


Chichewa, Ciyawo & Citumbuka

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Malawi and other Countries




MALI

Languages Specific to Mali


Bamanankan (Bambara) ~ Senoufo, Mamara (Mamara, Minyanka)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Mali and other Countries




MAURITANIA

Languages Specific to Mauritania


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Mauritania and other Countries




MAURITIUS

Languages Specific to Mauritius


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Mauritius and other Countries




MAYOTTE

Languages Specific to Mayotte


Shimaore (Maore)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Mayotte and other Countries




MOÇAMBIQUE (MOZAMBIQUE)

Languages Specific to Moçambique (Mozambique)


Chuwabu (Echuwabu) ~ Koti ~ Lomwe (Elomwe) ~ Makhuwa (Emakhuwa Central)

Makhuwa-Marevone (Emakhuwa Emarevoni)

Makhuwa-Meetto (Emakhuwa Emeetto) ~ Makonde (Shimakonde)

Mwani (Kimwani) ~ Ndau (Cindau) ~ Takwane (Etakwane)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Moçambique and other Countries




MOROCCO

Languages Specific to Morocco


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Morocco and other Countries




NAMIBIA

Languages Specific to Namibia


Kwanyama (Oshikwanyama) ~ Kwangali ~ Ndonga ~ Rumanyo

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Namibia and other Countries




NIGER

Languages Specific to Niger


Zarma

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Niger and other Countries




NIGERIA

Languages Specific to Nigeria


Abõ, Afi/Amanda, Njwande & Manta

Basa Benue (Basa), Damakawa, Reshe & Tsuvadi
Batu, Kamino & Buru

Cicipu ~ C'lela ~ Damakawa ~ Defaka ~ Degema ~ Dɔ (Dong)

Ebira ~ Edo (Bini) ~ Efik ~ Eleme ~ Emai-Luleha-Ora

Ibani ~ Ibibio ~ Idoma ~ Igbo ~ Ikwere ~ Isekiri ~ Isoko ~ Izon ~ Jibu

Kalabari ~ Kambari (Tsishingini) ~ Khana ~ Kirike (Okrika) ~ Kutep ~ Manga ~ Marghi

Mbembe ~ Mein ~ Momi & Yendang ~ Nembe ~ Obulom ~ Polci ~ Tee ~ Tiv ~ Urhobo


Plateau Languages of Central Nigeria (Examples)

Akpondu ~ Tesu ~ Toro ~ Hasha ~ Sambe ~ Cara ~ Shall-Zwall ~ Tahos ~ Nincut

Edwa ~ Ehwa ~ Ejegha ~ Kulu ~ Kuturmi ~ Izere ~ Ganang ~ Feran ~ Cen ~ Hyam of Nok ~ Shang

Gwara ~ Nyankpa ~ Tinor ~ Za ~ Nyeng ~ Ndun ~ Shakara ~ Anib ~ Ayu ~ Bu ~ Ce ~ Mada ~ Nigye

Ninka ~ Ninkyop ~ Ninzo ~ Numana ~ Nunku ~ Eggon ~ Ake ~ Jijili (Koro) ~ Jili (Migili) ~ Tarok

Pe ~ Yangkam ~ Kwanka ~ Sur ~ Eloyi, etc.



Yobe Languages:
Bade, Bole, Duwai, Karekare, Ngamo & Ngizim



National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Nigeria and other Countries




RÉUNION

Languages Specific to Réunion


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Réunion and other Countries




RWANDA

Languages Specific to Rwanda


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Rwanda and other Countries




SAINT HELENA

Languages Specific to Saint Helena


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Saint Helena and other Countries




SÃO TOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE

Languages Specific to São Tomé e Príncipe


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in São Tomé e Príncipe and other Countries




SÉNÉGAL

Languages Specific to Sénégal


Diola Fogny (Jola-Fonyi)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Sénégal and other Countries




SEYCHELLES

Languages Specific to Sénégal


Seselwa Creole French (Seychelles Creole French)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Seychelles and other Countries




SIERRA LEONE

Languages Specific to Sierra Leone


Kono ~ Krio ~ Limba (West-Central) ~ Mende ~ Themne

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Sierra Leone and other Countries




SOMALIA

Languages Specific to Somalia


Maay (Af-Maay)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Somalia and other Countries




SOUTH AFRICA

Languages Specific to South Africa


Ndebele

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in South Africa and other Countries




SOUTH SUDAN (REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN)

Languages Specific to the Republic of South Sudan


Dinka ~ Ghulfan ~ Mabaan ~ Moru ~ Neur ~ Shilluk

Cwaya, Dagik, Heiban, Lumun, Masakin, Moro, Otoro, Tira & Tocco

Katcha, Kayigang & Kadugi-Krongo (Kadu)

Keiga Jirru, Temein & Tese

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in South Sudan and other Countries




SUDAN

Languages Specific to Sudan


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Sudan and other Countries




SWAZILAND

Languages Specific to Swaziland


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Swaziland and other Countries




TANZANIA

Languages Specific to Tanzania


Asu (Pare) ~ Hadza ~ Iraqw ~ Kinyamwezi (Nyamwezi) ~ Ngh'wele ~ Sandawe

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Tanzania and other Countries




TOGO

Languages Specific to Togo


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Togo and other Countries




UGANDA

Languages Specific to Uganda


Ganda ~ Luganda ~ Soo (So)

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Uganda and other Countries




WESTERN SAHARA

Languages Specific to Western Sahara


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Western Sahara and other Countries




ZAMBIA

Languages Specific to Zambia


Bemba ~ Lamba

National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Zambia and other Countries




ZIMBABWE

Languages Specific to Zimbabwe


National/Official Languages
& Languages Spoken in Zimbabwe and other Countries





INDIGENOUSE LANGUAGES OF AUSTRALIA


Arrernte (Eastern Arrernte, Eastern Aranda) ~ Awabakal (Awaba)


Bayungu ~ Bunuba ~ Burarra ~ Burduna


Gamilaraay (Kamilaroi) ~ Guguyimidjir (Guugu Yimithirr) ~ Gumatj


Gunwinggu (Kunwinjku) ~ Gupapuyngu (Dhuwala) ~ Gurdjar (Kurtjar)


Iwaidja ~ Jiwarli


Kaititj (Kaytetye) ~ Kala Lagaw Ya (Kalaw Lagaw Ya, Kalaw Kaway Ya)


Karajarri ~ Kartujarra ~ Kriol


Mangala ~ Manyjilyjarra ~ Martu Wangka ~ Meriam ~ Murrinh-Patha


Nangikurrunggurr (Ngan'gikurunggurr, Ngan’gityemerri)


Ngadjonji (Dyirbal, Ngadjan) ~ Ngarluma


Nunggubuyu ~ Nyamal ~ Nyangumarta


Pakanha (Bakanh, Bakanha) ~ Pitjantjatjara ~ Putijarra


Thalanyji ~ Tiwi


Uw Oykangand & Uw Olkola


Wagiman ~ Walmajarri ~ Warlpiri (Walpiri) ~ Warnman ~ Wik-Mungkan


Yanyuwa (Yanyula, Yahula) ~ Yindjibarndi ~ Yolŋu Matha ~ Yulparija


Australian Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander Languages, Histories, Databases, Maps, etc.





LANGUAGE REFERENCES - SOME EXAMPLES


Ethnologue: Languages of the World


World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS)


MultiTree: A Digital Library of Language Relationships


The Linguist List


Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project (HRELP)


Endangered Languages Archive (ELAR)





MULTILINGUAL ONLINE TRANSLATION


Multilingual Text & URL (Web Pages) Online Translation


What Language is it? Online Language Identifier





WRITING SYSTEMS, LANGUAGE CENSUS, BODY LANGUAGE

LANGUAGES & SOUNDS OF BIRDS, WHALES, ETC.
(Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)



Ethnologue Languages of the World & U.S. Language Census


Writing Systems, Ancient Scripts & English Handwriting


Languages & Sounds of Birds, Fish, Frogs, Insects, Seals, Whales, etc.





SIGN LANGUAGE & BRAILLE


SIGN LANGUAGE

Arabic ~ Croatian ~ Dutch ~ English ~ Flemish

French-Speaking Belgium ~ French

German ~ Greek ~ Hungarian ~ Icelandic ~ Italian ~ Japanese

Korean ~ Latvian ~ Polish ~ Russian ~ Spanish ~ Swedish ~ Turkish



BRAILLE

English Braille


Arabic Braille, Croatian Braille, Czech Braille, Dutch Braille,
French Braille, German Braille, Italian Braille, Japanese Braille, Korean Braille,
Potuguese Braille, Russian Braille, Spanish Braille, Swedish Braille, Vietnamese Braille



Languages of India
(Bengali Braille, Punjabi Braille, Sanskrit Braille, Tamil Braille, Urdu Braille, etc.)





ENGLISH & OLD ENGLISH
(Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)



Writing & Grammar Courses, Lectures, Lessons,
Writing Guides, Writing for Newspapers & Magazines,
Writing Resumes, Business, Technical & Professional Writing,
Grammar Lessons, Parts of Speech,
Phrasal Verbs, Morphology, Verb Conjugation, etc.


Vocabulary Lessons

Spelling (Word & Text Spell Checkers) ~ Typing Courses & Typing Tests

English Usage & Rhetorical Devices



Old English Dictionaries, Courses, etc.
(Text, Images & Audio/Sound)




Linguistics Courses, Lessons & Databases
(Text, Images, Animations, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)


Writing Systems
(Text, Images & Audio/Sound)


Handwriting: 1500-1700 - Courses



Phonetics Courses & Lessons &
International Dialects of English, International Index of Sounds, etc.
(Text, Images, Animations, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)


English Word, Phrase & Text-to-Speech (TTS)
(Text, Images & Audio/Sound)




Listening Courses & Lessons
(Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)






Dictionaries ~ Encyclopedias/Encyclopædias


Dictionaries By Subject

Archaeology & Anthropology ~ Architecture & Construction
Art, Ballet, Music & Fashion ~ Botany & Gardening
Business & Finance ~ Common Names - Meaning & Origin
Computer, Internet, Internetworking, Cryptography

Drugs: Prescription & Over-The Counter
Engineering, Chemistry, Physics,
Geoscience, Materials Science, Mathematics


Environment, Epidemiology, Bioterrorism,
Parasites, Pesticides, Poisons, etc.


Food, Herbs, Wine, Cooking, etc.

Law ~ Linguistics ~ Medical ~ Military ~ Myths & Legends
Nuclear Energy ~ Occult & Paranormal ~ Old English
Philosophy ~ Printing & Topographic


Acronyms to Words in a Word:

Acronyms ~ Anagrams ~ Antonyms ~ Holonyms ~ Hypernyms ~ Meronyms

Rhyming ~ Symbols ~ Synonyms Thesaurus ~ Troponyms ~ Words in a Word



English Poetry, English Ballads, English Quotations, English Literature

Poetry ~ Ballads ~ Quotations ~ Literature




LINGUISTICS JOURNALS

FONTS, KEYBOARD LAYOUTS & RESOURCES







Home Page


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