CALCULATORS ON-LINE CENTER
PART I: I-N
(Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets,
and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals,
Handbooks, Simulations, Animations, Videos, etc.)
U.S.: Wednesday, February 22, 2017
Sydney, Australia: Thursday, February 23, 2017
File Download Time Calculator
Currently the Calculators On-Line Center contains
over "22,125" Calculators & Spreadsheets,
over "4,420" Courses, Lectures, Manuals, Handbooks,
& "1,000's" of Movies, Videos, Simulations & Animations
How Long Will I Live ~ Acupuncture
Biorhythm ~ Blood Alcohol ~ BSA ~ Cancer
Diagnostics, Outcomes, Tools, Trials, EBM, Nursing, etc.)
Medical Calcs: D-O ~ Medical Calcs: P-Z
Back to Calculators On-Line Center Part I: I-N
Calculators On-Line Center
The Longevity Game Calculator
INTERACTIVE ACUPUNCTURE CHART - Qi: The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health & Fitness, Insight Publishing, Anaheim Hills, California Multimedia Interactive Acupuncture Chart (Text, Images, Animations & Simulations)
"...This model is for educational purposes only. Treatment and diagnosis should be performed by a licensed, professional acupuncturist..."
Biorhythm Calculator INPUT Values include:
BIORHYTHM CHART CALCULATOR - The Dreamtime
BLOOD ALCOHOL CALCULATOR - THE DRINK WHEEL - Intoximeters Inc
Blood Alcohol Calculator (Drink Calculator for Breath Alcolol Testing):
BLOOD ALCOHOL CONTENT CALCULATOR: ONLINE BREATHALYZER TEST AND BLOOD ALCOHOL CONTENT/LEVEL CALCULATOR AND METRIC CONVERSION CALCULATOR - Web Site by: Port Douglas Internet Services, Yorkeys Knob, Qld, Australia VERY EXTENSIVE.
Blood Alcohol Content Calculator INPUT Values include:
BLOOD ALCOHOL CONTENT CALCULATOR - Police Department, University of Oklahoma
Blood Alcohol Content Calculator (BAC Calculator) INPUT Values include:
BSA (Body Surface Area)
Body Surface Area Calculator for Medication Doses
Examples of Body Surface Area Calculator for Medication Doses INPUT Values include
Formula Using (Mosteller; DuBois; Haycock; Boyd or Gehan & George);
Age & Gender;
Medication Dose Calculator; etc..."
BODY SURFACE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
BODY SURFACE AREA CALCULATOR (BSA CALCULATOR) - Blood & Marrow Transplantation Program, School of Medicine, Stanford University
Body Surface Area Calculator (BSA Calculator) INPUT Values include:
Cancer Staging & Cancer Prediction Tools
CANCER STAGING - COLLABORATIVE STAGE DATA COLLECION SYSTEM - American Joint Committee on Cancer Multimedia Cancer Schema and Coding Database (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
"...For use in department cancer or tumor board conferences, this series offers succinct, case-based presentations following the common format of: symptom presentation; imaging work-up; and pathology diagnosis..."
CANCER PREDICTION TOOLS - Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
Examples of Cancer Prediction Calculators - Cancer Prediction Tools include
Lung Cancer Risk Assessment;
Prostate Cancer; etc..."
BREAST CANCER RISK CALCULATOR - S.B. Halls, Steven B. Halls Professional Corp., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Breast Cancer Risk Calculator
BREAST CANCER RISK ASSESMENT TOOL - National Cancer Institute VERY EXTENSIVE.
Breast Cancer Risk Calculator was
Age; Age at the time of her first menstrual period;
Age at the time of her first live birth of a child; etc..."
Pretransplant Assessment of Mortality Score
PAM SCORE CALCULATOR - Authors: T. Parimon, D.H. Au, P.J. Martin & J.W. Chien, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
Pretransplant Assessment of Mortality Score Calculator
Disease Risk (Low-risk diseases, Intermediate-risk diseases or High-risk diseases);
Conditioning Regimens; Pretransplant serum creatinine; SGPT;
Percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in one-second; etc..."
PROSTATE CANCER CALCULATORS - ANNs in CaP, Denver, CO VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
Prostate Cancer Calculators
Height & Weight
Acute Physiology & Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV & APACHE II)
Altitude Medicine ~ Blood, Blood Loss, Hemoglobin
Bone, Bone Fractures ~ Burns, Burn Diagramming
Clinical (All Inclusive),
including Medical Algorithms Spreadsheets
Clinical Research ~ Clinical Statistics
Clinical Trials & Scientific Experiments
Diagnostic Tests ~ End-Stage Liver Disease
Experimental Design for Experimental Treatments
Foodborne Illness ~ Growth/Child Measurement
Group A Streptococcus (GAS)
Health Decisions, Health Economics, Health Statistics
Medicare - Discharge Planning ~ Nursing ~ Poisson Distribution
Signal Detection ~ Tissue Dielectric Properties ~ Wilson's Disease /
Height Calculator & Weight Calculator.
For more information see Calculators; Blood & Marrow Transplantation Program; Departments or the School of Medicine
APACHE IV & APACHE II CALCULATORS & SPREADSHEETS (XLS)
ACUTE PHYSIOLOGY & CHRONIC HEALTH EVALUATION (APACHE IV) - APACHE is a registered trademark of Cerner Corporation, Hosted by Middle East Critical Care Assembly VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
ALTITUDE MEDICINE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
ALTITUDE MEDICINE & PHYSIOLOGY - Authors: J.K. Baillie, A. Simpson, A.A.R. Thompson, M.G.D. Bates & R. Partridge, AltitudePhysiology.org Multimedia Altitude Medicine Lessons, Guides, Publications, Technical Reports, the "International High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema (HAPE) Database, etc. (Text & Images). VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
High altitude cerebral oedema;
High altitude pulmonary oedema..."
Oxygen Levels Calculator;
Oxygen Carriage in Blood Calculator;
Advanced Blood Oxygen Content Calculator;
Hemoglobin Saturation Calculator; etc..."
Oxygen Levels Calculator with Graph INPUT Values include:
Advanced Blood Oxygen Content Calculator
Advanced Blood Oxygen Content Calculator with Graph INPUT Values include:
Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC);
Haematocrit (Hematocrit); pH; p50; etc..."
BLOOD CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Blood Loss Calculators
BLOOD CALCULATOR - D. Hanauer, SuperMagnus Software VERY EXTENSIVE.
Blood Calculator (Blood Loss Calculator) INPUT Values include:
1-3 Years Old;
4-6 Years Old;
7-18 Years Old or Adults..."
Blood volume for patient's age automatically inputed after Age Determination.
BLOOD LOSS CALCULATOR - M. Villanueva, Warren, Michigan
Replacing Blood Loss
FRACTURE RISK CALCULATOR - S. Ott, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington VERY EXTENSIVE.
Fracture Risk Calculator
Low-Trauma Fracture as Adult;
Hip Fracture in Parent;
Use of Arms to Rise from Chair;
Take Seizure Medicine;
Take Sedatives; etc..."
BURN CALCULATORS, GUIDES, PUBLICATIONS, TECHNICAL REPORTS, ETC.
SAGE II, SURFACE AREA GRAPHIC EVALUATION - BURN DIAGRAMMING - CALCULATOR - SageDiagram, LLC., Portland, OR Multimedia Clinical Skills & Clinical Procedures: Burn Diagramming Lessons, Guides, Publications, Technical Reports - Surface Area Graphic Evaluation Lessons, Guides, Publications, Technical Reports (Text & Images). VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
Available in English, Spanish/Español & Swedish/Svenska.
Examples of "Burn Surface Area" Evaluation, Diagramming & Calculators include
Burn Care Calculator (Burns Calculator - Burn Calculator)
CARDIOVASCULAR CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Clinical Calculator (Medical Calculator) Subject Categories include:
Dextrose IV Fluid Convertor Calculator INPUT Values include:
Mix with (Free Water, D5, D10, D25, D50, etc); Target Solution..."
Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia Calculator
Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia Calculator INPUT Values include:
Weight; Male or Female; etc..."
Perioperative Cardiac Evaluation Calculator
Perioperative Cardiac Evaluation Calculator INPUT Values include:
Recurrent Symptoms or Signs; Recent Coronary Evaluation;
Recent Coronary Angiogram or Stress Test;
Major Clinical Predictors (Decompensated CHF; Significant Arrhythmias; etc.); etc..."
Ballard Maturational Assessment of Gestational Ages Calculator
Ballard Maturational Assessment of Gestational Ages Calculator INPUT Values include:
Physical Maturity (Skin, Lanugo, Plantar Surface, etc.)..."
Examples from over "40" Clinical Decision Making Calculators Categories & Subcategories include:
Odds/Likelihood ratio Calculator (Bayes' Theorem);
Screening Perspective Calculator; etc..."
Number Needed to Protect and Cost Calculator;
Test Independence Calculator (Explore the relations between two tests for the same disease);
2 Treatment Independence Calculator; etc..."
Number needed to treat Calculator..."
Logit and logistic functions Calculator;
Triplet Triangulator Calculator; etc..."
FAMILY PRACTICE MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX (SPREADSHEETS OPEN ONLINE WITH EXCEL, iWORK-NUMBERS, IBM LOTUS SYMPHONY, NEOOFFICE, OPENOFFICE CALC, ETC.) - American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) Multimedia Family Practice Management Toolbox: Family Practice Medical Calculator; Family Practice Clinical Calculator; Family Practice Forms; etc. (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
The American Academy of Family Physicians
Coding Frequency Comparison Spreadsheet;
Medical Decision-Making Reference Calculator;
Evidence-based Encounter Form for Acute Otitis Media Spreadsheet; etc..."
Evidence-based Encounter Form for Acute Knee Injury Spreadsheet;
Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Cost-savings Calculator;
Vital Signs Spreadsheet;
Coronary Angioplasty Risk Calculator;
CURB-65 and CURB-65 Severity Scores for Community-Acquired Pneumonia Calculator; etc..."
MDCALC, THE CLINICAL CALCULATOR - G. Walker, New York VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
Examples from "MDCalc, The Clinical Calculator" Calculators includes:
Absolute Neutrophil Count Calculator;
Absolute Reticulocyte Count Calculator;
Bayes Sensitivty & Specificity Calculator;
Calcium Correction in Hypoalbuminemia Calculator;
Cockcroft-Gault Equation for GFR Calculator;
Corrected QT for HR Calculator;
Maddrey's Discriminant Function for Alcoholic Hepatitis Calculator;
Corrected CSF White Count for RBCs Calculator;
Parkland Formula for Burns Calculator;
Stool Osmolal Gap Calculator;
San Francisco Syncope Rule to Predict Serious Outcomes Calculator;
TIMI Risk Score for UA/NSTEMI;
Well's Criteria for Pulmonary Embolism; etc..."
MEDICAL ALGORITHMS (SPREADSHEETS OPEN ONLINE WITH EXCEL, iWORK-NUMBERS, IBM LOTUS SYMPHONY, NEOOFFICE, OPENOFFICE CALC, ETC.) - The Medical Algorithms Company Multimedia Medical Algorithms Calculators & Medical Algorithms Spreadsheets (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
Free but you must Register.
MEDICAL CALCULATORS - D. McAuley, GlobalRPh VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
Examples of Medical Calculators include:
Anion Gap Calculator;
Alligation Compounding Calculator;
Arterial Oxygen Content Calculator;
Corticosteroid Converter Calculator;
Drip Rate Calculator (Multi-column);
Framingham 10 year Risk Assessment Calculator;
Corcoran Clearance Calculator;
Total Parenteral Nutrition Calculator;
Serum Sodium Level Prediction Calculator;
Sodium Level Correction Calculator;
Urinary Indices Calculator (RFI & FE-Na);
Clinical Calculator; etc..."
MEDICAL CALCULATORS (PEDIATRICS) - S. Pon, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Cornell University VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
Examples from over "30" Pediatric Medical Calculators include:
Emergency Medications Calculator & Drip Rate-Dose Table Calculator;
Fixed Concentration Medicated Infusions Calculator;
Fractional Excretion of Sodium Calculator;
Serum Osmolality Calculator;
A-a Gradient Calculator;
Bicarbonate & Base Excess Calculator;
Oxgen Content Calculator;
Ventilation Calculator; A-a Gradient Calculator;
Base Excess Calculator;
Pediatric Calculator; etc..."
Alveolar-arterial Gradient Calculator INPUT Values include:
Bicarbonate & Base Excess Calculator
Bicarbonate & Base Excess Calculator INPUT Values include:
Creatinine Clearance Calculator - Original Schwartz Estimate
Creatinine Clearance Calculator INPUT Values include:
Serum Creatinine; Height..."
Oxygenation Index Calculator
Oxygenation Index Calculator INPUT Values include:
Pharmacokinetics Simulator Calculator INPUT Values include:
Dose; Dosing Interval; Peak; Indexed Dose; Peak-Trough Interval; etc..."
Ventilation Index Calculator
Ventilation Index Calculator INPUT Values include:
Kappa with Linear Weighting Calculator;
Kappa with Quadratic Weighting Calculator;
Frequencies and Proportions of Agreement Calculator..."
Clinical Research Calculator 1: From an Observed Sample: Estimates of Population Prevalence, Sensitivity, Specificity, Predictive Values, and likelihood Ratios Calculator
Test Specificity; etc..."
Clinical Research Calculator 2: Predictive Values, and likelihood Ratios
Clinical Research Calculator 2: Predictive Values, and likelihood Ratios Calculator
Clinical Research Calculator: Simple ROC Curve Analysis Calculator
Clinical Research Calculator: Simple ROC Curve Analysis Calculator INPUT Values include:
Observed Frequencies (False Positive & True Positive);
Cumulative Rates (False Positive & True Positive)..."
CLINICAL STATISTICS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Examples of High-Precision Distribution Calcultors include
Negative Binomia Calculator;
Poisson Distribution Calculators; etc..."
GROUP RANDOMIZER CALCULATOR - D. Hanauer, SuperMagnus Software
Group Randomizer Calculator INPUT Values include
GRAPHPAD QUICKCALCS - H.J. Motulsky, GraphPad Software, Inc. VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. For more information see GraphPad Software
Some examples from over "25" Calculators include
McNemar's Test to Analyze a Matched Case-control Study Calculator
Number Needed to Treat (NNT) Calculator - How Effective is a Clinical Treatment?
Number Needed to Treat Calculator (NNT Calculator) INPUT Values include:
Desired Confidence Level..."
Post Test Calculator After Two-way (or other) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Post Test Calculator After Two-way (or other) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Randomly Assign Subjects to Treatment Groups Calculator
andomly Assign Subjects to Treatment Groups Calculator INPUT Values include:
Compute ECanything from EC50 Calculator
Compute ECanything from EC50 Calculator INPUT Values include:
CLINICAL TRIALS CALCULATORS & APPLETS
STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLINICAL TRIALS AND SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS - D.A. Schoenfeld, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School & the Department of Biostatistics, Massachusetts General Hospital VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
Under Software, Click on Sample Size Calculation and them SAMPLE SIZE PROGRAM.
Statistical Considerations for Clinical Trials and Scientific Experiments
Find Statistical Considerations for a Study where the Outcome is a Time to an Event Calculator INPUT Values include:
Units for the Following Intervals (Days, Months, Years);
The Number of Units between the First Patient entering the Trial and the Last Patient Entering the Trials;
Median Time to Event; etc..."
Statistical Considerations for a Parallel Trial where the Outcome is a Measurement Calculator
Statistical Considerations for a Parallel Trial where the Outcome is a Measurement Calculator INPUT Values include:
Standard Deviation of the Outcome Variable, if known;
Two of the following Three Values (Power; Total Number of Patients; Minimal Detectable Difference)..."
DIAGNOSTIC CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
DIAGNOSTIC TEST EVALUATION CALCULATOR - MedCalc Software bvba
"Diagnostic Text Evaluation Calculator" INPUT Values include
Negative: Present (False Positive) - Absent (True Positive)..."
Positive Likelihood Ratio;
Negative Likelihood Ratio;
Positive Predictive Values; etc..."
Examples of "Allocation Calculators" include
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS, SIMULATIONS & CHARTS
Experimental Design Generator And Randomiser (EDGAR) is
"...Experimental treatments are whatever it is that you control in the experiment. These might be, for example, different environmental conditions or fertiliser regimes in which plants are grown, or different media used for tissue culture. Furthermore, if you are interested in how different species, or different genotypes of one species, vary in a particular character, those species or genotypes are considered to be treatments. The term factor refers to a set of different treatments. A typical experiment might investigate..."
Randomised Complete Blocks with Unequal Replication of Treatments within Blocks Calculator;
Alpha design Calculator;
Randomised Incomplete Blocks of Unequal Sizes Calculator;
Completely Randomised Design with Equal Replication Calculator;
Completely Randomised Design with Unequal Replication Calculator;
Latin Square Calculator; etc..."
FOODBORNE ILLNESS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS, SIMULATIONS & CHARTS
The Economic Research Service (ERS)
Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator: STEC O157 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157)..."
GROWTH CALCULATORS, APPLETS, COURSES & CHARTS
CDC Growth Chart Training
WHO CHILD GROWTH STANDARDS - World Health Organization Multimedia Pediatric Growth Charts (Text & Images).
WHO Child Growth Standards
Growth reference data for 5-19 years include
Height-for-age (5-19 years);
Weight-for-age (5-19 years)..."
Growth reference data II (for 5-19 years)
Growth reference data II (for 5-19 years) include
Body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age);
Motor development milestones..."
Growth Calculator INPUT Values include:
GROWTH CHARTS FOR BOYS GIRLS HEIGHT, WEIGHT AND BODY MASS INDEX - CALCULATOR - S.B. Halls, Steven B. Halls Professional Corp., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Multimedia Pediatric Growth Charts (Text & Images).
Child Growth Charts
GROWTH CHARTS FOR CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME (ENGLISH OR METRIC) - G. Richards Multimedia Pediatric Growth Charts (Text & Images).
Growth Charts for Children with Down Syndrome input valeus include:
Girls & Boys 2 to 18 by Weight or Length..."
GROUP A STREPTOCOCCUS CALCULATORS & APPLETTS
Group A streptococcus (GAS)
Number of invasive GAS cases in current month;
Number of invasive GAS cases in previous month;
Mean temperature in previous month;
County or region population;
Persons below poverty line;
Estimated Percentage of GAS cases who are HIV Positive; etc..."
HEALTH DECISION CALCULATORS & DEMONSTRATIONS - Health Decision Strategies, LLC. VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Health Decision Strategies
Cost-Consequence Analysis Calculator INPUT Values include:
Longevity; QOL; etc..."
Pharmaco Economics Calculator INPUT Values include:
Life Yrs Gained; Quality of Life; etc..."
Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) Grapher & Calculator
Multi-Attribute Utility Theory Calculator INPUT Values include:
Fieller's Confidence Intervals: Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Calculator and Plotter
Fieller's Confidence Intervals: Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Calculator INPUT Values include:
Survival Probabilities Calculator INPUT Values include:
Metanalysis of Multiple Compatable Studies Calculator
Metanalysis of Multiple Compatable Studies Calculator INPUT Values include:
Factorials, Combinations and Permutations Calculator
Factorials, Combinations and Permutations Calculator INPUT Values include:
Combinations and Permutations (Number of Objects, etc.)..."
Single Trial Evaluator Calculator
Single Trial Evaluator Calculator INPUT Values include:
Total Number in Control Group;
Number in Experimental Group with Event Outcome;
Total Number in Control Group;
Relative Risk Reduction; etc..."
LABORATORY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
FOR LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS & PROTOCOLS SEE THE LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS & PROTOCOLS CENTER
THE SIX SIGMA CALCULATORS - James O. Westgard, Westgard QC Multimedia Six Sigma Calculators, Essays, Lessons, and Applications (Text & Images). VERY VERY EXTENSIVE.
Six-Sigma Metrics for Assessing Performance of Laboratory Testing Processes Calculators include
Process Design Calculator;
QC Design Calculator (Critical Systematic Error)..."
MEDICAL CHEMISTRY CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Medical Chemistry Calculator converts
Sodium Chloride; Sodium Bicarbonate;
Blood Urea Nitrogen; Urea;
Creatinine; Glucose; Total Protein;
MEDICARE CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
Medicare Eligibility & Premium Calculator will
NURSING CALCULATORS - M. Villanueva, Warren, Michigan VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
Nursing Calculators Categories include
IV Rates Calculators;
Infusion Time Calculators;
Dosage Given or Infusing Calculators;
IV Dosage Calculator INPUT Values include:
IV Rate Calculator
IV Rate Calculator INPUT Values include:
IV Infusion Time Calculator
IV Infusion Time Calculator INPUT Values include:
Determine Drug Absorption by pKa
Drug Absorption by pKa Calculator INPUT Values include:
OR IVF Requirements Calculator
OR IVF Requirements Calculator Calculator INPUT Values include:
IVF Replacement for NPO Deficit Calculator
IVF Replacement for NPO Deficit Calculator INPUT Values include:
Muscle Relaxant Dose Calculator
Muscle Relaxant Dose Calculator INPUT Values include:
Atracurium 10mg/mL; Cisatracurium 2mg/mL; Mivacurium 2mg/mL;
Doxacurium 1mg/mL; Pancuronium 1mg/mL; etc..."
POISSON DISTRIBUTION CALCULATORS & APPLETS
The Poisson process
The Gamma Distribution;
The Poisson Distribution;
Splitting a Poisson Process;
Bernoulli Trials and the Poisson Process;
Higher Dimensional Poisson Processes..."
Poisson Experiment Calculator;
Two-Type Poisson Experiment Calculator;
Two-Dimensional Poisson Process Calculator..."
THE POISSON CALCULATOR - The Poisson Pit, C. Anesi
The Poisson Distribution
SIGNAL DETECTION CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
WISE Signal Detection Calculator
TISSUE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES CALCULATORS, APPLETS & SPREADSHEETS
Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues Calculators (in the frequency range 10 Hz - 100 GHz) include
Single Tissue, Single Frequency Calculator;
Single Tissue, Frequency Range Calculator..."
WILSON'S DISEASE CALCULATORS, APPLETS & SPREADSHEETS
Calculators On-Line Center: Part I:I-N
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