MARTINDALE'S

THE REFERENCE DESK



LABORATORY TESTS,

DIAGNOSTICS & PROTOCOLS CENTER



US/Pacific: Friday, October 24, 2014
Sydney, Australia: Saturday, October 25, 2014


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LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS, TESTS, ETC.



Clinical Lab Tests, Pathology Laboratory Tests,
Diagnostic Techniques & Procedures, Lab Techniques



Normal Ranges (Reference Range)
& Critical Values for Common Laboratory Tests



Physician's Guides to Laboratory Test Selection & Interpretation


Laboratory Tests (All Inclusive) & Microbiology Collection Procedures


Hazardous Properties of Human Pathogens
when Working in a Laboratory Setting



Mycology Laboratory Methods


Chemical Sampling Encountered in Industrial Hygiene Investigations


Hazardous Substances ~ Genetic Laboratory Tests ~ Neuromuscular Laboratory Testing



Medical Tests (Infants, Children & Adults): Consumers & Patient Education



BIO LABORATORY PROTOCOLS, METHODS & TECHNIQUES


Apoptosis Protocols ~ Histology Protocols, Methods & Techniques


HPLC, HPLC Columns, Spin Columns, Electrophoresis Gels


Microbiological Methods: Microbiological Analyses of Foods & Cosmetics


Microfluidics: Lab-on-a-Chip Technology


Molecular Biology Protocols & C. elegans Protocals



MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUES & PROTOCOLS


Microscopy, Photomicrography & Digital Imaging Techniques


Transmission Electron Microscopy



CHEMISTRY CENTER
(Chemistry Laboratory Techniques & Experiments with Videos)






Laboratory Diagnostics


    CLINICAL LAB TESTS, PATHOLOGY LABORATORY TESTS,
      DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES & PROCEDURES, LAB TECHNIQUES, ETC.


      Normal Ranges (Reference Range) & Critical Values for Common Laboratory Tests

        NORMAL RANGES FOR COMMON LABORATORY TESTS - Rush Medical Laboratories (RML), Rush University Medical Center, Rush University Multimedia Normal Ranges for Common Laboratory Tests Database (Text & Images). For more information see Rush Medical Laboratories or the Rush University Medical Center
        Normal Ranges for Common Laboratory Tests include:
          Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
            "...Calcium; Chloride; CO2, Total; Creatinine; Glucose; Potassium;
            Sodium; Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)..."
          Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (BMP)
            "...Albumin; Alkaline Phosphatase;
            Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase - SGPT);
            Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase - SGOT);
            Bilirubin, total; Calcium; Carbon Dioxide; Chloride; Creatinine;
            Glucose; Potassium; Protein, Total; Sodium; Urea Nitrogen..."
          Blood Gases, Arterial
            "...pH; pCO2 (Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide);
            pO2 (Partial Pressure of Oxygen); Bicarbonate; CO2 (Carbon Dioxide);
            O2 Saturation (Oxygen Saturation)..."
          Blood Gases, Venous
            "...pH; pCO2 (Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide);
            pO2 (Partial Pressure of Oxygen); Bicarbonate; CO2 (Carbon Dioxide);
            O2 Saturation (Oxygen Saturation)..."
          Lipid Panel
            "...Cholestrol; High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL Cholesterol);
            Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL Cholesterol); Triglyceride..."
          Thyroid Tests
            "...Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH); Total Thyroxine (Total T4), Adult;
            Thyroid Hormone Uptake (T Uptake); Free Thyroxine (Free T4);
            Free Thyroxine Index (FTI)..."
          Hematology Panel
            "...White Blood Cell Count (WBC); Red Blood Cell Count (RBC); Hemoglobin (Hgb);
            Hematocrit (Hct); Mean Cell Volume (MCV); Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH);
            Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC); Platelets (Platelet count);
            Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)..."
          Leukocyte Differential
            "...Neutrophils; Segmented Neutrophils; Band Cells; Lymphocytes;
            Monocytes; Eosinophils; Basophils..."
          Other Common Chemistry Tests
            "...Amylase; Cholesterol; C-Reactive Protein (CRP); Creatine Kinase;
            Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT); Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH);
            Lipase; Magnesium; Phosphorus; Uric Acid..."



        CRITICAL VALUES - Rush Medical Laboratories (RML), Rush University Medical Center, Rush University Multimedia Critical Values Database (Text & Images).
        Critical Values
          "...may imply a life-threatening situation for the patient and are brought to the immediate attention of the physician and/or the patient care area responsible for the patient..."
        Critical Values include
          "...Critical Values for Clinical Chemistry;
          Critical Values for Therapeutic Drugs;
          Critical Values for Clinical Hematology;
          Critical Values for Clinical Microbiology;
          Critical Values for Blood Center..."
        For more information see Rush Medical Laboratories or the Rush University Medical Center



      Physician's Guide to Laboratory Test Selection & Interpretation

        ARUP CONSULT: THE PHYSICIAN'S GUIDE TO LABORATORY TEST SELECTION & INTERPRETATION - ARUP Laboratories Multimedia Physician's Guide to Laboratory Test Selection & Interpretation (Text & Images).
        Examples of ARUP's "Physician's Guide to Laboratory Test Selection & Interpretation" include
          "...Over 1,000 lab tests categorized for diagnostic decision making;
          Disease-related topics include background information, test ordering suggestions, and concise diagnostic advice;
          Diagnostic algorithms; etc..."
        Browse ARUP's Physician's Guide to Laboratory Test Selection & Interpretation by
          "...Disease Categories;
          Topics with Algorithms;
          Topic Names or Recent Updates..."
        Depending on Disease, Each Disease includes
          Clinical Background
            "...Epidemiology;
            Risk Factors Clinical Presentation;
            Pathophysiology;
            Diagnosis; Disease monitoring..."
          Indications for Ordering Test
            "...Test Name and Number;
            Recommended Use;
            Limitations;
            Follow Up..."
          References;
          Tests Available; etc.
        For more information see ARUP Laboratories



        RCPA MANUAL - Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Multimedia Pathology Test Manual - Clinical Laboratory Tests Database (Text & Images).
        RCPA Manual
          "...The main purpose of this Manual is to provide useful guidelines for the selection of pathology tests and to facilitate interpretation of results..."
        For more information see Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia

          Examples from the "RCPA Manual" Sections & Subsections include

            Complete Clinical Problem Listing
            Complete Clinical Problem Listing
              "...presents pathology tests in the context of the clinical problems which give rise to the need for diagnostic information..."
            Depending Clinical Problem (Disease) Each Problem/Disease Name includes
              "...Appropriate Tests..."

            Complete Pathology Test Listing
            Complete Pathology Test Listing
              "...includes most of the tests available to the clinician..."
            Depending on Test, Each Test includes
              "...Specimen; Method;
              Reference Interval;
              Application;
              Interpretation; etc..."










Bio Laboratory Protocols









Microscopy Laboratory Protocols & Techniques



    MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUES


      Optical Microscopy, Photomicrography & Digital Imaging with Text, Images, Animations & Simulations

        OPTICAL MICROSCOPY FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS (FLASH & JAVA APPLETS) - Olympus America, Inc. Multimedia Microscopy Courses, Lessons, etc. (Text, Images, Animations, Simulations, Calculators & Applets).
        Optical Microscopy is
          "...designed to provide an Internet-based educational forum on all aspects of optical microscopy, photomicrography, and digital imaging..."
        Examples of "Microscopy" Categories & Subcategories include
          Anatomy of the Microscope
            "...Simple Magnification;
            Numerical Aperture;
            Condenser Aperture Diaphragm;
            Condenser Light Cones;
            Alignment of the Lamp Filament; etc..."
          Light and Color
            "...Optical Diffraction;
            Electromagnetic Radiation;
            Jablonski Diagram;
            Brewster's Angle;
            Concave Mirrors;
            Convex Mirrors;
            Refraction of Light; etc..."
          Specialized Techniques
            "...Optical Gradients in Phase Objects;
            Optical Path Difference;
            Rheinberg Illumination;
            Cardioid Condensers; etc..."
        For more information see Olympus Corporation

          Examples from over "150" Microscopy Lessons, Calculators, Applets, etc. include

            Physics of Light and Color Calculators & Applets
            Physics of Light and Color Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Electromagnetic Radiation;
              Sources of Visible Light;
              Fluorescence;
              Speed of Light;
              Reflection of Light;
              Refraction of Light;
              Diffraction of Light; etc..."

            Photomicrography Calculators & Applets
            Photomicrography Calculators & Applets include:
              Exposure and Color Balance;
              Didymium Filters;
              Filter Classes;
              Photomask Reticle Operation;
              Exposure Metering; etc..."

            Fluorescence Microscopy
            Fluorescence Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Practical Aspects of Fluorescence Filter Combinations;
              Optimization and Troubleshooting;
              Electronic Imaging Detectors;
              Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy;
              Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy; etc..."

            Confocal Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Confocal Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Spectral Bleed-Through Artifacts in Confocal Microscopy;
              Choosing Fluorophore Combinations for Confocal Microscopy; etc..."

            Virtual Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Virtual Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy;
              Phase Contrast Microscopy;
              Reflected Light Confocal Microscopy; etc..."



        MICROSCOPYU (FLASH & JAVA APPLETS) - Nikon MicroscopyU, Nikon Multimedia Microscopy Courses & Lessons (Text, Images, Animations, Simulations, Calculators & Applets).
        MicrosopyU is
          "...designed to provide an educational forum for all aspects of optical microscopy, digital imaging, and photomicrography..."
        Examples of "Microscopy" Categories & Subcategories include
          Basic Concepts and Formulas in Microscopy
            "...Conjugate Planes in Optical Microscopy;
            Depth of Field and Depth of Focus;
            Refractive Index;
            Numerical Aperture;
            Working Distance and Parfocal Length; etc..."
          Microscope Optical Systems
            "...Infinity Optical Systems;
            Properties of Microscope Objectives; etc..."
          Principles of Phase Contrast Microscopy
            "...Specimen Contrast in Optical Microscopy;
            Optical Pathways in the Phase Contrast Microscope;
            Interaction of Light Waves with Phase Specimens; etc..."
          Differential Interference Contrast
            "...Reflected Light DIC Microscopy;
            Bias Retardation Effects on Specimen Contrast;
            DIC Microscope Component Alignment; etc..."
          Concepts in Fluorescence Microscopy
            "...Introduction to Fluorescent Proteins;
            Fundamentals and Applications in Multiphoton Microscopy;
            Fluorescence Filter Noise Terminator; etc..."
          Introduction to Live-Cell Imaging Techniques
            "...Maintaining Live Cells on the Microscope Stage;
            Cell Motility;
            Optical System and Detector Requirements for Live-Cell Imaging; etc..."
          Fundamentals of Stereomicroscopy;
          Introduction to Confocal Microscopy; etc..."
        For more information see Nikon USA

          Examples from over "150" Microscopy Lessons, Calculators, Applets, etc. include

            Microscope Optical Systems Calculators & Applets
            Microscope Optical Systems Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Tube Lens Focal Length;
              Immersion Oil and Refractive Index;
              Numerical Aperture Light Cones;
              Geometrical Construction of Ray Diagrams; Perfect Lens Characteristics; etc..."

            Phase Contrast Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Phase Contrast Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Phase Contrast Microscope Alignment;
              Optical Pathways in the Phase Contrast Microscope;
              Phase Plate Configuration Effects on Specimen Contrast;
              Specimen Optical Path Length Variations; etc..."

            Differential Interference Contrast Calculators & Applets
            Differential Interference Contrast Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Bias Retardation Effects on Specimen Contrast;
              DIC Microscope Component Alignment;
              Comparison of Phase Contrast and DIC Microscopy;
              Wavefront Relationships in Reflected Light DIC Microscopy; etc..."

            Fluorescence Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Fluorescence Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Focus and Alignment of Mercury and Xenon Arc Lamps;
              Matching Fluorescent Probes with Fluorescence Filter Blocks;
              Choosing Fluorescent Proteins for Dual Labeling Experiments;
              Balancing Arc-Discharge Lamp Excitation Illumination;
              Stereomicroscopy Fluorescence; etc..."

            Fundamentals of Stereomicroscopy Calculators & Applets
            Fundamentals of Stereomicroscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Oblique Coherent Contrast Illumination;
              Toroidal Mirrors;
              SMZ-1500 Stereoscopic Microscope;
              SMZ-1500 Oblique Coherent Contrast Illumination; etc..."



        MICROSCOPY (FLASH & JAVA APPLETS) - M.W. Davidson, Florida State University Multimedia Microscopy Courses & Lessons (Text, Images, Animations, Simulations, Calculators & Applets).
        Virtual Microscopy explores
          "...specimen focus, illumination intensity, magnification, and translation---operating essentially in a manner that is identical to real-life microscopes..."
        For more information see Molecular Expressions: Exploring the World of Optics & Microscopy

          Examples from over "100" Microscopy Lessons, Calculators, Applets, etc. include

            Basic Concepts in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Basic Concepts in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              "...The Concept of Magnification;
              Introduction to Lenses and Geometrical Optics;
              Microscope Optical Components;
              Microscope Illumination;
              Image Brightness; etc..."

            Digital Imaging in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets
            Digital Imaging in Optical Microscopy Calculators & Applets include:
              Concepts in Digital Imaging Technology;
              Basic Properties of Digital Images;
              Introduction to Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs);
              Introduction to CMOS Image Sensors; etc..."

            Specialized Microscopy Techniques Calculators & Applets
            Specialized Microscopy Techniques Calculators & Applets include:
              "...Darkfield Microscopy;
              Differential Interference Contrast;
              Oblique or Anaxial Illumination;
              Phase Contrast;
              Deconvolution in Optical Microscopy;
              Live-Cell Imaging;
              Confocal Microscopy; etc..."



      Virtual Microscopy





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