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Currently the Calculators On-Line Center contains
over "23,525" Calculators & Spreadsheets,

over "4,305" Courses, Lectures, Manuals, Handbooks,
& "1,000's" of Movies, Videos, Simulations & Animations


INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING


Additive Manufacturing (AM) - 3D & 4D Printing
AM Technologies:
3DP, SLS, DMLS, EBM, LPF, LENS, EBF3,
LOM, SLA, DLP, PμSL, MPμ-SLA, FDM, FE, FFM, FFF, LDEPD, etc.;
AM Applications:
Food, Artifical Organs, Human Tissues, Nanoscale,
Medical, Dental, Aerospace, Automotive, Electronics, etc.



Aluminium Manufacturing, Aluminium Production Processes


Biomass Power Plants


Blacksmithing ~ Casting, Die Casting, Metal Casting, etc.


Ceramics Engineering - Ceramics Manufacturing


Cold Process ~ Glass & Quartz Manufacturing


Food Process Engineering - Food Manufacturing ~ Foundry


Galvanizing


Leather Manufacturing


Paper & Printing ~ Pipe Engineering ~ Plant Engineering & Process Control


Separation & Filtration Techology


Steel Manufacturing, Steel Production Processes


Sugar Manufacturing


Warehouse & Distribution, Material Handling, Logistics, etc.



Manufacturing & Design Engineering


Engineering Center



Calculators On-Line Center











Additive Manufacturing (AM) - 3D & 4D Printing



ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES
(3DP, BJMP, SLS, MLS, DMLS, EBM, LPF, LENS, EBF3, LOM,
SLA, DLP, PμSL, MPμ-SLA, FDM, FE, FFM, FFF, LDEPD, SOFT FIBERS, ETC.)



SUPERCOMPUTER-BASED VISUALIZATION & SIMULATION APPS
FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)




4D PRINTING - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)


3D BIOPRINTING - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Food Production, Artifical Organs, Human Tissues, Non-Human Tissues, etc.)



NANOSCALE & MICROSCALE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Nanoparticles, Photonics, Microfluidics, Mechanical Microstructures, etc.)



MEDICAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Medical Devices, Surgical Instruments, Implants,
Hearing Aids, Ocular, Prosthesis, Bone Substitutes, etc.)



GLASSES: FRAME AND LENSES ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)


DENTAL & ORTHODONTICS ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Crowns & Bridges; Implant Drill Guides, Partial Dentures, Braces, etc.)



CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Footware, Jewellery/Jewelry & Watches, Interior Products for Homes, Offices, etc.)



3D MODELS ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Examples: 3D Models of the Smithsonian Collection,
3D Models of Insects for Species Discovery and Diagnostics)




PRINTED OPTICS & EXPRESSIVE ANIMATED EYES ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)


SOFT FIBERS (WOOL & WOOL BLEND) 3D PRINTER - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)


3D PRINTERS FOR USE IN SPACE (NASA) - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Rocket Engine Injectors, Manufacturing in Zero-Gravity, etc.)



3D PRINTERS USED BY THE U.S. MILITARY - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)
(Use on or near the Battlefield for Parts, Tools, etc., Printing Explosives,
Printing Parts for Protective Masks and Holders for Improvised Explosive Device Detectors, etc.)




COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM)

Commercial, Industrial & Consumer Products
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)

3D Printed Speakers/Loudspeakers (Examples) ~ 3D Printed Metal Bicycle Frames (Examples)

3D Printed Titanium Horseshoes (Examples)

3D Printed Cellular Composites (Examples) ~ 3D Printed Batteries (Examples)

3D Printed Custom Cars, Motorcycles,
Motorized Bicycles, Adult Tricycles, Kids 12 Volt Ride-on Car, etc. (Examples)


3D Printed Boat Propellers, Hand Tools, Hospital Gurneys, etc. (Examples)

3D Printed Robots including
printable electrical components (resistors, inductors, capacitors, etc.), sensors and actuators (Examples)


3D Printed Robots that Interacts with Visitors & Printed Quadrocopters [Quadcopters] (Examples)

3D Printed Robots - Fully Customizable, Generate and Assemble the Basic Parts (Examples)



Companies Producing Products using Additive Manufacturing
in Multiple Industries Auto, Aero, Defense, Consumer Products, etc. (Examples)




Additive Manufacturing by Industry (Examples)

Aerospace Industry
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Automotive Industry
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Defense Industry
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Electronics Industry
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Energy, Power Generation, Oil, Gas, Pumps Industries
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Firearms Industry & Firearms Parts
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Film & Animation Industry
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Optics - Optical Components Industry
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)


Smartphones Industry
using Additive Manufacturing - 3D-Printing (Examples)




ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) STANDARDS, NEWS, INDEXES, ETC.






    Additive Manufacturing (AM) - 3D Printing


      ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES
        3DP, BJMP, SLS, MLS, DMLS, EBM, LPF, LENS, EBF3, LOM, SLA,
        DLP, PμSL, MPμ-SLA, FDM, FE, FFM, FFF, LDEPD, SOFT FIBERS, ETC.

        Additive Manufacturing (AM): 7 Recongnized Categories by ASTM with more than 30 Different Manufacturing Technologies

        1. Binder Jetting
          (Print heads with multiple nozzles - Liquid bonding agent selectively deposited to join powder materials)
          Examples of Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing Systems include
            Inkjet Powder Printing
            3DP
        2. Material Jetting
          (Print heads with multiple nozzles - Droplets of build material selectively deposited)
          Examples of Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing Systems include
            Polyjet Matrix
            3D Sandcasting
            Binder Jetting Metal Printing (BJMP)
        3. Powder Bed Fusion (Thermal energy selectively fuses regions of powder bed)
          Examples of Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing Systems include
            Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
            Micro Laser Sintering (MLS)
            Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)
            Selective Laser Melting (SLM)
            Electron Beam Melting (EBM)
            Electron Beam Direct Manufacturing (EBDM)
        4. Directed Energy Deposition (Focused thermal energy melts materials as deposited)
          Examples of Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Systems include
            Laser Powder Forming (LPF)
            Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
            Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3)
        5. Sheet Lamination (Sheets of material bonded together)
          Examples of Sheet Lamination Additive Manufacturing Systems include
            Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)
        6. Vat Photopolymerization (Liquid photopolymer selectively cured by light activation)
          Examples of Vat Photopolymerization Manufacturing Systems include
            Stereolithography (SLA)
            Digital Light Processing (DLP)
            Micro-Stereolithography (Micro-SLA)
            Projection Micro-Stereolithography (PμSL)
            Mask Projection Micro Stereolithography (MPμ-SLA)
            Mask Projection Microstereolithography (MPSLA)
        7. Material Extrusion (Material selectively dispensed through nozzle or orifice)
          Examples of Material Extrusion Manufacturing Systems include
            Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
            Thermoplastic Extrusion (FE)
            Plastic Jet printing (PJP)
            Fused Filament Method (FFM)
            Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)
        8. Light-Directed Electrophoretic Deposition (LDEPD)
        9. Soft Fibers (Wool & Wool Blend) 3D Printer


      SUPERCOMPUTER-BASED VISUALIZATION AND SIMULATION APPS - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) - (EXAMPLES)




      4-D PRINTING - ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) - (EXAMPLES)
        4D printing "takes 3-D printing and adds a transformation dimension"
        4D Printing "where the 4th dimension is time"

        4D Printing - Additive Manufacturing (Examples)

        4-D PRINTING - Founder: Skylar Tibbits, SJET LLC., Director: Self-Assembly Lab, Department of Architecture, MIT Multimedia 4-D Printing (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound).
        4-D Printing
          "...4D Printing, where the 4th dimension is time..."
          "...a new process is being developed, coined 4D Printing, which demonstrates a radical shift in rapid-prototyping. 4D Printing entails multi-material prints provided by the Connex Technology with the added capability of embedded transformation from one shape to another, directly off the print-bed..."
        Cyborg: 4-D Printing Software (Autodesk Research)
          "...a design platform spanning applications from the nano-scale to the human-scale. This software allows for simulated self-assembly and programmable materials as well as optimization for design constraints and joint folding..."
        4D Printing - Stratasys’ Connex Technology (Stratasys Ltd.)
          "...a single print, with multi-material features, can transform from any 1D strand into 3D shape, 2D surface into 3D shape or morph from one 3D shape into another..."
        For more information see Self-Assembly Lab; Skylar Tibbits Home Page or the Department of Architecture



        4-D PRINTING - PROJECT CYBORG - Autodesk Research Multimedia 4-D Printing - Project Cyborg (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound).
        4D Printing - Project Cyborg
          "...Project Cyborg was used to simulate various shape transformations and optimize folding sequences in 4D Printing..."
        For more information see Autodesk Research



        4D PRINTING - Stratasys Ltd. Multimedia 4D Printing - Stratasys’ Connex Technology (Text & Images).
        4D Printing - Stratasys’ Connex Technology
          "...a single print, with multi-material features, can transform from any 1D strand into 3D shape, 2D surface into 3D shape or morph from one 3D shape into another..."
        For more information see Stratasys



        SELF-ASSEMBLY LAB - Director: Skylar Tibbits, Self-Assembly Lab, Department of Architecture, MIT Multimedia Self-Assembly Lab (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound).
        Examples of Processes include
          Programmable Matter & 4D Printing;
            "...4D Printing, where the 4th dimension is time, is one recent example of PM that allows objects to be printed and self-transform in shape and material property when submerged in water..."
          Self-Assembly & Self-Organization
            "...Self-Assembly is a process by which disordered parts build an ordered structure through only local interaction. In self-assembling systems, individual parts move towards a final state, wheras in self-organizing systems, components move between multiple states,..."
            Examples include:
              "...BioMolecular Self-Assembly;
              Autonomous Mass-Assembly;
              Chiral Self-Assembly; etc..."
          Coded Folding
            "...Coded Folding is the ability to embed coded instruction within material systems to activate the folding of any 1D or 2D structure to any other structure..."
        For more information see Skylar Tibbits Home Page or the Department of Architecture



        4D Printing - U.S. Military (Examples)

        ARMY LOOKS BEYOND 3-D PRINTING, EXPLORES 4-D TECHNOLOGY - Author: Valerie Insinna; Date Posted & Published: 3/18/2014, National Defense Magazine, National Defense Industrial Association Multimedia "Army Looks Beyond 3-D Printing, Explores 4-D Technology" Article (Text & Images).
        4-D Technology - Grace  Bochenek, the Army’s Chief Technology Office, U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC)
          "...Four-D printing "takes 3-D printing and adds a transformation dimension,"..."
          "...Bochenek envisions body armor as one possible future application of 4-D printing..."
          "..."If you had a material, and you had a capability to do [4-D printing], maybe [the armor would be] packaged differently, but when it gets into certain environmental conditions, it alters."..."
        For more information see the National Defense Magazine or the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC)















    Aluminium Production & Processes - Aluminium Manufacturing


      ALUMINIUM RELATED CENTERS

      ALUMINIUM COURSES, LECTURES, TEXTBOOKS, ETC.

        ALUMINIUM PRODUCTION COURSES, LECTURES, TEXTBOOKS, ETC.

        ALUMINIUM CALCULATORS, APPLETS, SPREADSHEEETS, VIDEOS/MOVIES, ETC.

        ALUMINIUM PRODUCTION PROCESSES CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

        ALUSELECT - aluSELECT is an initiative by the European Aluminium Association in partnership with the Materials Teaching Educational Resources (MATTER) Project, Material Science & Engineering, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, U.K. VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Multimedia Aluminium Alloys Database (Text & Images).
        aluSELECT
          "...is a computer-based reference database containing technical information on the most widely used aluminium alloys..."
        aluSELECT's Aluminium Alloys Database includes:
          Wrought Alloys
            Corrosion & Anodizing
              "...Industrial Atm Corr Index; Marine Atm Corr Index;
              Rural Atm Corr Index; Stress Corrosion Index; etc..."
            Physical & Elastic Properties
              "...Modulus of Elasticity; Modulus of Rigidity; Poisson's Ratio;
              Solidus Temperature; Specific Heat Capacity; Resistivity; etc..."
            Formability, Machinability & Weldability
              "...Cold Formability Index; Deep Drawability Index;
              Stretch Formability Index; Suitability for Spinning;
              Extrudability Index; Machinability Index; Electron Beam Weldability Index;
              Oxy-gas Weldability Index; Shielded Arc Weldability Index;
              Spot & Seam Weldability Index; Brazability Index; etc..."
            Mechanical Properties
              "...Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength; Ultimate Tensile Strength;
              Shear Stress; Minimum Elongation A5; Elongation A5;
              Minimum Elongation A50; Elongation A50; Hardness - Brinell & Vickers; etc..."
            Alloy Composition; Creep Properties; Fatigue Properties; etc.
          Casting Alloys
            Mechanical Properties
              "...Minimum UTS; Hardness, Brinell; Fatigue Endurance Limit;
              Hot Tear Resistance; Machinability; etc..."
            Physical & Surface Properties
              "...Coefficient of Thermal Expansion; Thermal Conductivity;
              Electrical Conductivity; Fluidity; Polishing Ability;
              Corrosion; etc..."
        For more information see the MATTER Project or the Department of Engineering



        ALUMATTER (ALUMINIUM MATTER) - Developed in partnership between the European Aluminium Association & the Materials Teaching Educational Resources (MATTER) Project, Material Science & Engineering, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, U.K. Multimedia aluMATTER: Aluminium Science and Technology Course (Text, Images, Animations, Simulations & Videos/Movies). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        aluMATTER
          "...is available in English; German; French & Nederlands..."
        Aluminium Science and Technology Course
          "...aims to provide innovative and interactive e-learning tools for aluminium science and technology..."
        Examples of "aluMATTER" Course Chapters & Subchapters include
          Materials Science & Engineering
            "...Alloying; Crystal Structure; Plastic Deformation;
            Strengthening Mechanisms; Softening Mechanisms;
            Anisotropy; Mechanical Properties; Surface Properties;
            Physical Properties; Corrosion and Corrosion Control..."
          Processing
            "...Rolling Processes; Forming; Heat Treatment; Machining;
            Surface Processing; Joining; etc..."
          Case Studies
            Automotive; Overhead Cables; Eddy Current Separation;
            Electromagnetic Shielding; Heat Exchanger; Aerospace; etc..."
          Applications
            "...Automotive; Electrical; Construction; Space; etc..."
        For more information see the European Aluminium Association or the MATTER Project



        TRAINING IN ALUMINIUM APPLICATION TECHNOLOGIES - European Aluminium Association Multimedia Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Courses & Lectures (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
          "...is the most comprehensive collection of training material for Engineers and Researchers in Industries and Universities, including 152 lectures corresponding to 3000 pages with over 2300 figures..."
        Examples of "Training in Aluminium Application Technologies" Sections include
          Aluminium Materials Technology
            "...These lectures deal with the metallurgy of aluminium and its fabrication from bauxite to semi-finished products (viz. extrusions, sheet, plate, forgings, etc), their properties and..."
          Aluminium Design
            "...Product Development Lectures are conceived as an introductory course and comprise a number of case studies on various current aluminium applications..."
            "...Structural Design is an extensive course on a well advanced level addressing engineers responsible for design and calculation of stability and reliability of load carrying structures..."
          Aluminium Machining and Forming
            "...The lectures address both production engineers and designers who need to understand aluminium characteristics for the choice of the best production route..."
          Aluminium Joining Technology
            "...The seven lecture series provides a concise treatment of all presently used joining technologies for aluminium products..."
          Aluminium Surface Technology
            "...topics are covered in a series of introduction and advanced lectures addressing both technologists and design engineers..."
        For more information see Other Educational Tools or the European Aluminium Association





      ALUMINIUM CALCULATORS & APPLETS










    Sugar Manufacturing - Sugar Engineering


      SUGAR INDUSTRY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

        SUGAR FACTORY CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

        SUGAR FACTORY EQUIPMENT DESIGN CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

        SUGAR ENGINEERING DATA - CALCULATIONS - Sugar Engineers' Library, South Africa Multimedia Interactive Lessons & Calculators (Text, Images, Animations & Simulations). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        Sugar Engineering
          "...Data for engineering design of sugar factory equipment & processes..."
        For more information see the Sugar Engineers' Library

          Some examples from over "40" Sugar Engineering Calculators include

            Mill Operation Evaluation
            Mill Operation Evaluation - Calculator INPUT Values include:
              "...Cane Throughput; Fibre Percentage of Cane;
              Number of Mills; Mill Roll Length; Mill Roll Outside Diameters;
              Tooth Pitch; Tooth Angle; etc..."

            Bagasse Calorific Value Calculator
            Bagasse Calorific Value Calculator INPUT Values include:
              "...Moisture Percentage Sample; Ash Percentage Sample;
              Brix Percentage Sample..."

            Water Pipe Sizing Calculator
            Water Pipe Sizing Calculator INPUT Values include:
              Water Properties
                "...Temperature; Pressure; Mass Flow; Maximum Flow Velocity..."
              Pipe System
                "...Pipe Length; Short Radius 90 Degree Bends;
                Long Radius 90 Degree Bends;
                Short Radius 45 Degree Bends; Tees - Line Flow;
                Tees - Branch Flow; Gate Valves; etc..."

            Steam Pipe Sizing Calculator
            Steam Pipe Sizing Calculator INPUT Values include:
              Water Properties
                "...Temperature; Pressure; Mass Flow; Maximum Flow Velocity..."
              Pipe System
                "...Pipe Length; Short Radius 90 Degree Bends;
                Long Radius 90 Degree Bends;
                Short Radius 45 Degree Bends; Tees - Line Flow;
                Tees - Branch Flow; Gate Valves; etc..."

            Sugar Solution Pipe Sizing Calculator
            Sugar Solution Pipe Sizing Calculator INPUT Values include:
              Sugar Solution Properties
                "...Temperature; Pressure; Mass Flow; Maximum Flow Velocity..."
              Pipe System
                "...Pipe Length; Short Radius 90 Degree Bends;
                Long Radius 90 Degree Bends;
                Short Radius 45 Degree Bends; Tees - Line Flow;
                Tees - Branch Flow; Gate Valves; etc..."

            Multiple Effect Evaporator Online Calculator
            Multiple Effect Evaporator Online Calculator INPUT Values include:
              "...Juice Inlet Temperature; Inlet Juice Brix;
              Juice Purity; Juice Flow Into First Effect;
              Heating Steam Pressure; Syrup Brix..."





      SUGAR PROCESSING CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

        SUGAR PROCESSING EQUIPMENT CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS

        RAPID DESIGN AND ENGINEERING OF SUGAR PROCESSING EQUIPMENT - Sugar Engineers' Library, South Africa Multimedia Interactive Tutorials & Calculators (Text, Images, Animations & Simulations). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE.
        "...Data for engineering design of sugar factory equipment & processes..."
        For more information see the Sugar Engineers' Library

          Some examples from over "7" Sugar Processing Calculators include

            Evaporator Rapid Designs Calculator
            Evaporator Rapid Designs Calculator INPUT Values include:
              "...Juice Inlet Temperature; Inlet Juice Brix;
              Juice Purity; Juice Flow Into Evaporator;
              Heating Steam Pressure; Vapour Space Pressure;
              Tube Outside Diameter; Distance between Tubeplates; etc..."

            Screw Conveyor Rapid Design Calculator
            Screw Conveyor Rapid Design Calculator INPUT Values include:
              "...Product; Conveyor Length; Particle Size; Abrasiveness;
              Flowability; Density; Screw Flight Pitch; etc..."

            Vertical Crystalliser Rapid Design Calculator
            Vertical Crystalliser Rapid Design Calculator INPUT Values include:
              "...Massecuite Mass Flow; Massecuite Density;
              Massecuite Sp Heat Capacity; Massecuite Outlet Temperature;
              Maximum Crystalliser Vessel Size;
              Cooling Water Inlet Temperature; etc..."







Engineering Center

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