MARTINDALE'S
CALCULATORS ONLINE CENTER ENGINEERING CENTER FLUID MECHANICS  COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) CENTER (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals, Handbooks, Simulations, Animations, Videos, etc.) 
MARINE HYDRODYNAMICS COURSE, LECTURES, ETC .WITH VIDEOS/MOVIES & AUDIO/SOUND Fluid Mechanics & Computational Fluid Dynamics Experiments, Visualizations, CFD Movies CFD MOVIES (QUICKTIME)  Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Team, Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique (CERFACS) (European Centre for Researh and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation), Toulouse, France Multimedia CFD Movies (CFD Videos)  Computational Fluid Dynamics Movies (Text, Images & Videos/Movies). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of "CFD Movies (CFD Videos)" Subject Categories & Subcategories include
LES of Turbulent Twophase Combustion Movies; LES of Turbulent Combustion Movies; LES of Cold Mixing Movies; Flames Interactions Movies; Pollutants Emission Movies; Supersonic Flows Movies; etc..."
Jet Tumble Interaction in Piston Engine Movies; LES Computations of a Jet in Cross Flow (JICF) Movies; LES Computations of the Burner Swirl Flow Movies; Unsteady Turbulence Movies; etc..."
Aeroelasticity Movies; Unsteady Aerodynamics Movies; etc..." CFD MOVIES (QUICKTIME)  CFD at RuG, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands Multimedia CFD Movies (CFD Videos)  Computational Fluid Dynamics Movies (Text, Images & Videos/Movies). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of "CFD Movies (CFD Videos)" Subject Categories include
Freesurface Liquid Dynamics 2D Movies; Freesurface Liquid Dynamics 3D Movies; Industrial Application Movies; etc..." FLUID MECHANICS: FLOW VISUALIZATION AND SIMULATIONS (QUICKTIME)  Videos/Movies Author: H. Rouse; Produced by the Iowa Institute of Hyraulic Research; Hosted by the Fluids Laboratory, IIHRHydroscience & Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa Multimedia Fluid Mechanics Course: Flow Visualization, Simulations, CFD Videos, etc. (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of Fluid Mechanics Topics & Processes Course Video Lectures include
Introduction to the Study of Fluid Motion Video Lecture (Fluid Mechanics Terminology); Introduction to the Study of Fluid Motion Video Lecture (Experimental Fluid Dynamics); Fundamental Principles of Flows Video Lecture (Basic Concepts and Physical Relationships of Fluid Motion); Hunter Rouse  Fundamental Principles of Flows Video Lecture (Flow Dynamics); Fluid Motion in a Gravitational Field Video Lecture (Gravitational Waves); etc..."
Characteristics of the Laminar and Turbulent Flows Video Lecture (Boundary Layer Flows); Fundamental Principles of Flows Video Lecture (Cavitation); Effects of Fluid Compressibility (Elastic Waves); Characteristics of the Laminar and Turbulent Flows Video Lecture (Flow around an Airfoil); Fundamental Principles of Flows Video Lecture (Flow Separation); Fluid Motion in a Gravitational Field Video Lecture (Flow over Weirs); Fluid Motion in a Gravitational Field & Effects of Fluid Compressibility Video Lecture (Gravitational Waves); Fluid Motion in a Gravitational Field Video Lecture (Hydraulic Jump); Fundamental Principles of Flows Video Lecture (Propulsion); etc..." ILLUSTRATED EXPERIMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS (REAL PLAYER)  National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films (NCFMF) and sponsored by the Hatsopolous Microfluids Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Multimedia Experiments in Fluid Mechanics Video Lessons, CFD Videos, etc. (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Illustrated Experiments in Fluid Mechanics
Cavitation Video; Channel Flow of a Compression Fluid Video; Deformation of Continuous Media Video; Eulerian Lagrangian Description Video; Flow Instabilities Video; Flow Visualization Video; Fluid Dynamics of Drag Part I, II, III, IV Videos; Fluid Quantity and Flow Video; Low Reynolds Number Flow Video; Magnetohydrodynamics Video; Pressure Fields and Fluid Acceleration Video; etc..." MECHANICS OF FLUIDS AND TRANSPORT PROCESSES  F. Stern, ThermalFluids, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa Multimedia Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Course  PDF, 350+ Pages  50+ CFD Videos & Lab Lectures (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of "Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes" Course Chapters include
Chapter 3: Bernoulli Equation; Chapter 5: Mass, Momentum, and Energy Equations; Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; etc..."
THE VIRTUAL ALBUM OF FLUID FLOW (QUICKTIME)  S. Turek, S. Kilian, Ch. Becker, et. al., FEAT/FEAST/FEATFLOW working group, High Performance Finite Elements, Mathematics III, Institutes für Angewandte Mathematik, University of Dortmund, Germany Multimedia Fluid Flow Flow Videos  Computational Fluid Dynamics Videos  CFD Videos (Text, Images & Videos). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Virtual Album of Fluid Flow
Channel Flow with Hills and Bumps Videos; Merger of Pipe Flows Videos; Flow around Balls Videos, Circles, Cylinders, etc. Videos; Flow around Vehicles Videos; Flow around Wings Videos; etc..."
Channel Flow with Moving Balls Videos; Channel Flow with Moving Flaps Videos; etc..."
Driven Cavity Flow Videos; etc..."
Hopper Videos; Heat exchanger Videos; etc..."

FLUID MECHANICS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS BOOK  Bruce Hunt, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand Multimedia Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineering Book  PDF, 366 Pages (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of "Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineering" Course Chapters include
Control Volume Methods; Differential Equation Methods; Irrotational Flow; Luminar and Turbulent Flow; BoundaryLayer Flow; Drag and Lift; Dimensional Analysis & Model Similitude; Steady Pipe Flow; Steady Open Channel Flow; etc..." MECHANICS OF FLUIDS AND TRANSPORT PROCESSES  F. Stern, ThermalFluids, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa Multimedia Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Course  PDF, 350+ Pages  50+ CFD Videos & Lab Lectures (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of "Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes" Course Chapters include
Chapter 3: Bernoulli Equation; Chapter 5: Mass, Momentum, and Energy Equations; Chapter 7: Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; etc..."
MECHANICS OF FLUIDS AND TRANSFER PROCESSES (SPREADSHEETS OPEN ONLINE WITH EXCEL, iWORKNUMBERS, IBM LOTUS SYMPHONY, NEOOFFICE, OPENOFFICE CALC, ETC.)  Fluids Laboratory, IIHRHydroscience & Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa Multimedia Mechanics of Fluids and Transfer Processes Course (Text, Images, Spreadsheets & Videos/Movies). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of "Mechanics of Fluids and Transfer Processes" Course Lectures include
Stability of a Floating Body; Conservation of Mass, Momentum, and Energy in a Sluice Gate/Hydraulic Jump; Measurement of Velocity Profile and Head Loss/Friction Factor in Pipe Flow; Measurement of Pressure Distribution and Lift for an Airfoil; etc.
Data Acquisition, Reduction, & Uncertainty Analysis; Lift Calculator Flow Visualization & Simulation Gallery Flow Visualization & Simulation Gallery includes:
Flow Transport and Interaction Processes..." Fluid Mechanics Concepts Videos; etc. Undergraduate Fluid Mechanics Lessons with Calculators & Applets ELEMENTARY FLUID MECHANICS INTERACTIVE TOOLS (JAVA APPLETS)  S.A. Kinnas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, Texas VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Elementary Fluid Mechanics; Elementary Fluid Mechanics CE319F Home Page; Spyros A. Kinnas' Home Page or the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
Manometer Pressure Calculator INPUT Values include:
Draining Tank Calculator Draining Tank Calculator INPUT Values include:
Discharge Coefficient..." Pipe Pressure Loss Calculator Pipe Pressure Loss Calculator INPUT Values include:
Pipe Diameter; Pipe Relative Roughness; Pipe Length from A to B; Elevation Gain from A to B; Fluid Density; Fluid Viscosity (Dynamic)..." Reynolds Number Calculator Reynolds Number Calculator INPUT Values include:
Characteristic Distance (or Pipe Diameter); Fluid Density; Fluid Viscosity (Dynamic)..." Interfacial Fluid Mechanics Applets include
SOLAR POWERED FLUID MECHANICS LAB  Alan Swithenbank, Database Software Developer, Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Multimedia Fluid Mechanics Lessons (Text, Images, Simulations & Videos/Movies). For more information see the Hopkins Marine Station

ADVANCED FLUID DYNAMICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT  T.R. Akylas, Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT Multimedia Advanced Fluid Dynamics of the Environment Course (Text, Images & Simulations). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Advanced Fluid Dynamics of the Environment
Lubrication Approximation for Flow in a Thin Layer; Release from a Pile on a Horizontal Plane; Aerosols and Coagulation; etc..."
Two Dimensional Laminar Jet; Karman's Momentum Integral Approach; Unsteady Boundary Layers; etc..."
Selective Withdrawal of Thermally Stratified Fluid; Dispersion of Suspension in a Steady Shear Flow; etc..."
Inviscid Instability Mechanism of Parallel Flows; etc..."
Geothermal Convection in Porous Media; Geothermal Plume; etc..."
Steady Onshore Wind in a Shallow Sea; Cyclonic Current Forced by a Swirling Wind; Free Waves near a Coast in a Sea of Constant Depth; Transient Motion in a TwoLayered Sea; etc..."
Fluid Statics; Fluid Jets; etc..." COMPUTATIONAL NUMERICAL ANALYSIS  J.M. McDonough, Advanced CFD Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Kentucky Multimedia Computational Numberical Analysis Course  PDF, 167 Pages (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Computational Numberical Analysis
TimeSplitting Methods for Evolution Equations; Various Miscellaneous Topics
Systems of PDEs; Numerical Solution of BlockBanded Algebraic Systems; CellRe and Aliasing Treatments; etc..." CFD OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS  J.M. McDonough, Advanced CFD Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Kentucky Multimedia CFD of Incompressible Flow Course  PDF, 155 Pages (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. CFD of Incompressible Flow
Special Numerical Diﬃculties of the Navier–Stokes Equations; Solution Algorithms for the N.–S. Equations; etc..." INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON TURBULENCE: PHYSICS, MATHEMATICS AND MODELING  J.M. McDonough, Advanced CFD Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Kentucky Multimedia Introductory Lectures on Turbulence: Physics, Mathematics and Modeling  PDF, 179 Pages (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Introductory Lectures on Turbulence: Physics, Mathematics and Modeling
Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Turbulence
The Kolmogorov Theory of Turbulence; etc.
Dynamical Systems and MultiScale Methods; etc. MARINE HYDRODYNAMICS (REAL PLAYER)  2.20 Marine Hydrodynamics, D.K.P. Yue, Center for Ocean Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, MIT Multimedia Marine Hydrodynamics Course (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Marine Hydrodynamics Course
NavierStokes Equation; Similarity Parameters from Governing Equations; Vortex Structures, Bernoulli Equation; Vorticity Equation; Lifting Surfaces; Vortex Induced Vibrations; Turbulent Flow; Turbulent Boundary Layers and Model Testing; Water Waves; etc..."
Cavitation Video; Channel Flow of a Compression Fluid Video; Deformation of Continuous Media Video; Eulerian Lagrangian Description Video; Flow Instabilities Video; Flow Visualization Video; Fluid Dynamics of Drag Part I, II, III, IV Video; Fluid Quantity and Flow Video; Low Reynolds Number Flow Video; Magnetohydrodynamics Video; Pressure Fields and Fluid Acceleration Video; etc..." Graduate Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Atmosphere and Ocean Fluid Dynamics, etc. Courses, Lectures, Textbooks, Manuals, etc. GEOPHYSICAL FLUID DYNAMICS LABORATORY  NOAA Multimedia Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Research, Model Development, Tools, Publications, etc. (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of "Geophysical Fluid Dynamics" Sections include
Climate Diagnostics; Climate Change, Variability and Prediction; Oceans and Climate; Weather and Atmospheric Dynamics; etc.." FLUID DYNAMICS OF ATMOSPHERE AND OCEAN (12.800)  L.J. Pratt, Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Multimedia Fluid Dynamics of the Atmosphere and Ocean Course (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENISVE. Examples of "Fluid Dynamics of the Atmosphere and Ocean" Course Chapters include
The Stress Tensor for a Fluid and the Navier Stokes Equations; Frictional boundary layers; Fundamental Theorems: Vorticity and Circulation; Geostrophy, QuasiGeostrophy; Internal Waves and Instabilities; etc..." FLUID DYNAMICS OF ATMOSPHERE AND OCEAN: VIDEO COURSE (12.800)  L.J. Pratt, Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Multimedia Fluid Dynamics of the Atmosphere and Ocean Course (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENISVE. For more information see Lawrence J. Pratt's Home Page; Department of Physical Oceanography; Videoconferenced Joint Program Courses  WHOI & MIT or the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) 
Compressible Flow Calculators include:
Normal Shock Relations Calculator; Oblique Shock Relations Calculator FLUID MECHANICS IMAGE GALLERY
Fluid Mechanics Image Gallery Subject Categories include:
Thermal/Fluid Systems; etc..." FLUID MECHANICS IMAGE & VIDEO GALLERY  T.T. Lim, Fluid Mechanics Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore Multimedia Fluid Mechanics Image Gallery & Video Gallery (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound). VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Fluid Mechanics Video Gallery includes:
Naturally occurring Positively Buoyant Jet; Headon Collision of Two Vortex Ring; Leapfrogging of Vortex Ring; etc..."
BubbleType Vortex Breakdowns in an Enclosed Cylinder; Coaxial Vortex Rings; An Elliptic Jet in Cross Flow; A Round Jet in a Cross Flow; etc..." FLUID MECHANICS: HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID MECHANICS  Nuclear Engineering (NE) Division, Applied Science and Technology Directorate, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Multimedia Heat Transfer & Fluid Mechanics Simulations (Text, Images & Simulations). VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see the Capabilities  Engineering Computation and Design or the Nuclear Engineering (NE) Division FLUID MECHAINCS IMAGE GALLERY  Laboratory for Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University Multimedia Fluid Mechanics Image Gallery (Text, Images & Movies). VERY EXTENSIVE. Fluid Mechanics Image Gallery Subject Categories include
Oceanography; Jet Cutting; Complex Turbuence; Canopy Flows; etc..." FLUID FLOW CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Fluid Flow Calculator is
FLUID FLOW CALCULATORS (JAVA APPLETS)  K. Edwards, LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of Fluid Flow Calculators include
Liquid or Gas Pipe & Pump Curve Calculator (DarcyWeisbach); Water Pipe Calculator (HazenWilliams); Water Pipe & Pump Curve Calculator (HazenWilliams)..."
Orifice Calculators (Liquids)..."
Circular Culvert Calculator; Trapezoidal Channel Calculator; Rectangular Channel Calculators..."
Flow Calculator INPUT Values include:
Reynolds Number Calculator Reynolds Number Calculator INPUT Values include:
Orifice Plate Calculator Pressure Drop Calculation Orifice Plate Calculator Pressure Drop Calculation INPUT Values include:
Opstream Pressure; Downstream Pressure; Pressure Drop through Orifice; Kinematic Viscosity; Dynamic Viscosity; Upstream Temperature; Gas Constant; etc..." Reynolds Number

Virtual Album of Fluid Flow
Channel Flow with Hills and Bumps Videos; Merger of Pipe Flows Videos; Flow around Balls Videos, Circles, Cylinders, etc. Videos; Flow around Vehicles Videos; Flow around Wings Videos; etc..."
Channel Flow with Moving Balls Videos; Channel Flow with Moving Flaps Videos; etc..."
Driven Cavity Flow Videos; etc..."
Hopper Videos; Heat exchanger Videos; etc..."
GASDYNAMICS CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS
GAS DYNAMICS CALCULATOR  R. Bonazza, Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Gas Dynamics Calculators include:
Xenon, Sulfur Hexafluoride..." Initial Temperature, Driven Section; Select a Driver Gas
Xenon, Sulfur Hexafluoride..."
Gas Dynamics TIMING ISSUES Calculator INPUT Values include:
Time Between Pressure Transducers; Distance Between Trigger Transducer and Window Centerline; etc..."
Estimated Delay Time for Membrane; etc..." Gas Dynamics BOOST TANK Calculator INPUT Values include:
Diaphragm Rupture Pressure; etc..."
GAS DYNAMICS TOOLBOX APPLET (CALCULATOR & GRAPH)  A. Alexeenko, Aerodynamics, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University VERY EXTENSIVE. Gas Dynamics Calculator is

THERMAL CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS CONDUCTION APPLET (ALUMINUM, CARBON STEEL, COPPER, NICKEL STEEL, STAINLESS STEEL ETC.)  B. Willson & G. Hutcherson, Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EELC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Colorado State University Conduction Calculator INPUT Values include:
Stainless Steel; etc..." HEAT TRANSFER MODELS CALCULATORS  MICROELECTRONICS HEAT TRANSFER CALCULATORS  Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Some examples from over "7" Microelectronics Heat Transfer Calculators include
Fluid Properties: Thermal Fluid Properties Calculator; Heat Sinks: Natural Convection for Rectangular Heat Sinks Calculator; Special Functions Calculator
Spreading Resistance of Rectangular Disk with Edge Cooling Calculator; etc..." SPREADSHEETS FOR HEAT TRANSFER (SPREADSHEETS OPEN ONLINE WITH EXCEL, iWORKNUMBERS, IBM LOTUS SYMPHONY, NEOOFFICE, OPENOFFICE CALC, ETC.)  R.J. Ribando, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Virginia VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples from over "20" Heat Transfer Spreadsheets include:
Coaxial Disks Calculator; Coaxial Cylinders Calculator; Parallel Rectangles Calculator..."
(2) Normal shock functions, (3) Flow with friction (Fanno Line), and (4) Flow with heat addition (Rayleigh Line)..." THERMAL CALCULATORS (THERMAL RESISTANCE, HEAT CONDUCTION, FIN EFFICIENCY, ETC.)  Novel Concepts, Inc., Las Vegas, NV VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Novel Concepts
Cylinder Thermal Resistance Calculator INPUT Values include:
Slab Mass Thermal Resistance Calculator Slab Mass Thermal Resistance Calculator INPUT Values include:
Pin Fin Efficiency Calculator Pin Fin Efficiency Calculator INPUT Values include:
SONOFUSION CALCULATORS, APPLETS & SIMULATIONS
Sonoluminescence
Kinetics of Fusion Calculators (concentration of deuterium atoms & neutron emission intensity); Heat Production Calculators TURBULENCE & MULTIPHASE FLUID FLOW COURSES, TEXTBOOKS, CALCULATORS, APPLETS & SIMULATIONS
Examples of "Turbulence & Multiphase Fluid Flow" Course Chapters include
Boiler; Charged Fibers; Charged Particles; CO2 Sequestration; Coal Ash Deposition; CRCD; Fractured Rocks; Gas Hydrates; Glass Furnaces; Indoor Air; Nano Aerosols; Particle Resuspension; Powder Dispersion; Sediment Transportration Control; etc..." TURBULENT FLOW CALCULATOR  Gossman Consulting, Inc. Turbulent Flow Calculator is
UT FLOW CALCULATORS & APPLETS
Pipe System EGL & HGL Visuliation Calculator
BERNOULLI PRINCIPLE & VENTURI TUBE CALCULATORS, APPLETS & ANIMATIONS
Bernoulli's Principle Animation
BERNOULLI CALCULATOR  C.R. Nave (Emeritus), Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Arts & Sciences, Georgia State University Bernoulli Calculator
VENTURI TUBE FLOW RATE CALCULATOR  Z. Savovic, Pipe Flow Calculation VERY EXTENSIVE. Venturi Tube Flow Rate Calculator
WIND TUNNELS & ICING RESEARCH TUNNELS
INTERACTIVE WRIGHT 1901 WIND TUNNEL  Glenn Research Center, NASA VERY EXTENSIVE. Wind Tunnel INPUT Values include:
Set Angle of Attack; Start Tunnel; etc..." JAVA VIRTUAL WIND TUNNEL  D. Oh, Computational Aerospace Sciences Laboratory, MIT The Java Virtual Wind Tunnel: Two dimensional Invicid Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation
Mach Number; Axial Velocity; Normal Velocity or Total Pressure; Inlet Mach; 4th Order; 2nd Order..." ORAN W. NICKS LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL  Texas A&M University AEM WIND TUNNEL  Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics (AEM), University of Minnesota GLEN L. MARTIN WIND TUNNEL  A. James Clark Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland 
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