MARTINDALE'S
CALCULATORS ONLINE CENTER MATHEMATICS CENTER UNIT CONVERSION, SI UNITS, ADDING MACHINES, PAPER TAPE CALCULATORS, SCIENTIFIC CALCULATORS (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals, Handbooks, Simulations, Animations, Videos, etc.) 
International System of Unit is
Time & Frequency Glossary
CONVERSION CALCULATOR FOR PREFIXES  F. Tapson & Cleave Books, Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching, University of Exeter, U.K. Conversion Calculator for Prefixes
tera (10^{12}), peta (10^{15}), exa (10^{18}), zetta (10^{21}), yotta (10^{24}) deci (10^{1}), centi (10^{2}), milli (10^{3}), micro (10^{6}), nano (10^{9}), pico (10^{12}), femto (10^{15}), atto (10^{18}), zepto (10^{21}), yocto (10^{24}) CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ENERGY EQUIVALENTS  CALCULATOR  Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards Conversion Factors for Energy Equivalents Calculator includes:
kilogram (Kg); inverse meter (1/m); hertz (Hz); kelvin (K); electron volt (eV); atomic mass unit (u); hartree (Eh)..." FUNDAMENTAL SI UNITS  Institut für Chemie und Biochemie  Bereich Chemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany In English & German/Deutsch. Fundamental SI Units includes:

Display Answere to 4 or 10 Decimal Places. Examples of Unit Conversion Calculators include
Area & Second Moment Area Calculator; Energy Calculator; Force Calculator; Length Calculator; Light Calculator; Mass and Moment of Inertia Calculator; Moment of Force or Torque Calculator; Power Calculator; Pressure & Stress Calculator; Temperature Calculator; Time Calculator; Velocity Calculator; Viscosity Calculator; etc..." CONVERTUNIT/KONVERTERA  M. Bergsten, Stockholm, Sweden VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Available in English & Swedish/Svenska. Significant Figures to 7 places with option to use Scientific Notation. Depending on Measuring Conversion, Unit Conversions include:
Avoirdupois; Ancient Greek; Biblical; Old Swedish; Troy; Astronomical;, etc..."
Power; Pressure; Speed; Temperature; Time; Volume/Capacity; Weight/Mass; etc..." UNIT CONVERSION CALCULATORS (ENGLISH, METRIC, OLD ENGLISH & SPECIAL UNITS (JAPANESE, SPANISH, LATVIA, IRANIAN, OLD TESTAMENT ETC.)  R.E. Greaves, Araneid Creations, U.K. VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Capacitance Calculator; Charge Calculator; Concentration Calculator; Current Calculator; Density Calculator; Dynamic Viscosity Calculator; Energy Calculator; Force Calculator; Illumination Calculator; Length Calculator; Length (Foreign) Calculator; Linear Density Calculator; Magnetic Flux Calculator; Magnetic Induction Calculator; Mass Calculator; Mileage Calculator; Moment of Inertia Calculator; Potential Calculator; Power Calculator; Pressure Calculator; Solid Angle Calculator; Speed Calculator; Surface Tension Calculator; Temperature Calculator; Thermal Conductivity Calculator; Time Calculator; Torque Calculator; Volume Calculator; Weight Calculator; Weight (Foreign) Calculator; etc. Ancient Weight Conversions include
Old Testament Weights; Old Palestine Weights; etc.
Druid; Egyptian; Greek; Hashimi; Homeric; Old French; Olympic; Persian Royal; Roman; Sumerian; etc. CONVERSION OF UNITS/UMRECHNUNG VON EINHEITEN  Institut für Chemie und Biochemie  Bereich Chemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Available in English & German/Deutsch. Conversion of Units Calculator
CONVERTME  S. Gershtein VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Available in English & Russian. Depending on Measuring Conversion, Unit Conversions include:
Chinese Imperial; Thai; Nautical; Typographical (British & U.S.: ATA System); Typographical (Europe: Didot System); Astronomical; Old French; Old Russian; Ancient Roman; Biblical; Ancient Greek; Artillery; etc..."
Capacity & Volume Calculator; Area Calculator; Speed Calculator; Temperature Calculator; Pressure Calculator; Energy & Work Calculator; Power Calculator; Torque Calculator; Circular Measure Calculator; etc..." CONVERT IT  ConvertIt.com, Inc. VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Momentum Calculator; Power Calculator; Velocity Calculator; Dose Equivalent Calculator; Dynamic Viscosity Calculator; Electric Charge Calculator; Electric Charge Density Calculator; Electric Current Calculator; Electric Dipole Moment Calculator; Electric Field Strength Calculator; Electric Flux Density Calculator; Electric Potential Calculator; Electric Resistance Calculator; Force Calculator; Frequency Calculator; Heat Capacity Calculator; Heat Flux Density Calculator; Kinematic Viscosity Calculator; Length Calculator; etc..." CRUDE OIL, CONDENSATE, LPG, LNG, ETHANE, RATES PER DAY/YEAR, CHOKE SIZES ETC.  SANTOS CONVERSION CALCULATORS  Santos Limited, Adelaide, Australia VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Examples of Petroleum Calculators include:
1000 Barrels of Oil Equivalent (KBOE); Tonnes or Kilolitres..."
1000 Barrels of Oil Equivalent (KBOE); Tonnes or Kilolitres..."
1000 Barrels of Oil Equivalent (KBOE); Tonnes or Kilolitres..."
Tonnes; Terajoule (TJ) or Petajoule (PJ)..."
Million Cubic Feet (MMCF); KTonnes; Terajoule (TJ)..."
Cubic Feet; Barrels; Litres; Kilolitres; US Gallons; Imperial Gallons..."
Millimetres; 64ths..." UNIT CONVERSIONS CALCULATORS  The Converter Site, Alastair Hazell VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversions Calculators
Square Hectometers, Square Inches, Square Miles, Square Millimeters, etc..."
Liquid Volume Converter Calculator; Mass and Weight Converter Calculator; Power Converter Calculator; Temperature Converter Calculator; Time Converter Calculator; Velocity Converter Calculator; etc..." EINHEITENKONVERTER (UNIT CONVERSIONS CALCULATORS)  Chemie.DE Information Service GmbH, a Life Science Network Division VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. In German/Deutsch. Examples of Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Area Dipole Moment Calculator; Capacity Calculator; Charge Calculator; Compressibility Calculator; Conductivity Calculator; Current Calculator; Density Calculator, Dipole Moment Calculator, Dose Equivalent Calculator; Dose Load Calculator; Energy Calculator; Effectivity Calculator; Entropy Calculator; Exposure Calculator; Force Calculator; Frequency Calculator; Illuminance Calculator; Inductance Calculator; Kinematic Viscosity Calculator; Length Calculator; Luminance Calculator; Luminous Energy Calculator; Luminous Flux Calculator; Luminous Intensity Calculator; Mass Calculator; Magnetic Flux Calculator; Magnetic Flux Density Calculator; Magnetic Reluctance Calculator; Magnetisation Calculator; Permitivity Calculator; Power Calculator; Pressure Calculator; Radian Calculator; Radioactivity Calculator; Range Calculator; Reciprocal Focal Length Calculator; Resistance Calculator; Solid Aangle Calculator; Temperature Calculator; Thermal Inductance Calculator; Thermal Insulance Calculator; Thermal Resistance Calculator; Time Calculator; Transfer Rate Calculator; Velocity Calculator; Viscosity Calculator; Voltage Calculator; Volume Calculator; etc..." 
Examples of Calculators include:
Cooking Units Calculator; Density Calculator; Electric Capacitance Calculator; Electric Current Calculator; Frequency Calculator; Illuminance Calculator; Length Calculator; Power Units Calculator; Speed Calculator; Time Calculator; Weight Calculator; etc..." ENERGY CALCULATIONS: CRUDE OIL, REFINED PRODUCTS (GASOLINE, DISTILLATES, RESIDUAL FUEL, ETC.), COAL, NATURAL GAS, METALS, ETC.  CME Group VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Energy Calculators
Crude Oil Futures Calculator
Unleaded Gasoline Futures Calculator; Kerosene Calculator; Distillates: Heating Oil & Diesel Calculator; Heating Oil Futures Calculator; Residual Fuel Oil Calculator; Propane Calculator..."
Natural Gas Futures Calculator..." Crack Spreads Calculator; Sparks Spreads Calculator; etc. ENGINEERING UNIT CONVERSION CALCULATORS  eFunda, Inc. VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. ngineering Unit Conversion Calculators
Electric Calculator; Luminous Calculator; Wire Gages Calculator; Sheet Metal Gages Calculator; Acceleration Calculator; Acoustic Impedance Calculator; Angle Calculator; Angular Velocity Calculator; Area Moment of Inertia Calculator; Electromagnetic Radiation Flux density Calculator; Entropy Calculator; Exposure Calculator; Fracture Toughness Calculator; Illuminance Calculator; Logarithm of a Ratio Calculator; Luminous Intensity Calculator; Magnetic Flux Calculator; Magnetomotive Rorce Calculator; Molar Electric Charge Calculator; Permeability Coefficient Calculator; Radiance Calculator; Refractive Power Calculator; Surface Density Calculator; etc..." ENGINEERING CONVERSION CALCULATORS  EngNet Ltd VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Engineering Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Area Calculator; Dynamic Viscosity Calculator; Force Calculator; Kinematic Viscosity Calculator; Linear Velocity Calculator; Angular Velocity Calculator; Density Calculator; Mass Flow Calculator; etc..." MEGA CONVERTER CALCULATOR (JAVA APPLETS)  BenCam InterMedia VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Area Calculator  Foreign Area Calculations include:
Length Calculator; Length Calculator (Foreign); Length (Ancient); Shot Count Calculator; Weight Calculator; Weight Calculator (Ancient); Weight Calculator (Foreign); Weight in Space Calculator; Wine & Spirts Calculations include:
Keg, Wine Barrel, Beer Barrel, etc.); etc. METALCALC  The Ganoksin Project VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Gram, Carat, Milligram, etc.
Stone, Pound, Ounce, Dram, Grain;
Gallon (gal), Quart (qt), Pint (pt), Gill (gi), Fluid Ounce (fl oz), Cubic inch (cu in) Fluid dram (fl dr) Minim (min);
Peck (pk), Gallon (gal), Quart (qt), Pint (pt), Gill (gi), Dry Ounce (dr oz), Cubic inch (cu in), Dry dram (dr dr), Minim (min); etc. ONLINECONVERSION  onlineconversion.com VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Astronomical Calculator; Date/Time Calculator; Energy Calculator; Flow Rate Calculator; Force Calculator; Length/Distance Calculator; Light Calculator; Numbers Calculator; etc..." THE THERMAL WIZARD  MAYA Heat Transfer Technologies Limited, Montreal, Québec, Canada Multimedia Thermal Database & Thermal Calculators (Text & Images). VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Thermal Wizard
Conduction Across Multilayered Isothermal Cylinder Calculator; Thermal Interface (Contact) Resistance and Temperature Difference Calculator; Rectangular Thin Plate Embedded in SemiInfinite Medium Calculator; etc..."
Forced Convection in the Fully Developed Region of a Duct Calculator; Forced Convection Across Isothermal Square Rod Calculator; Natural Convection in a Vertical Parallel Plate Channel Calculator; Natural Convection between Horizontal Concentric Cylinders Calculator; etc..."
Radiation between Parallel Disk Surfaces of Unequal Radius Calculator; etc..."
Head Loss Across a Thin Perforated Plate Calculator; Head Loss Across Louvers Calculator; etc..." 
Conversion Calculators include:
CONVERSION CALCULATOR  FUTEK Advanced Sensor Technology, Inc. VERY EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Energy Calculator; Flow (mass) Calculator; Flow (vol) Calculator; Length Calculator; Load Calculator; Magnetics Calculator; Power Calculator; Pressure Calculator; Speed Calculator; Temperature Calculator; Time Calculator; Torque Calculator; & Volume Calculator..." CONVERSION OF UNITS  UMRECHNUNG VON EINHEITEN  F. Richter, Technical University of ChemnitzZwickau, Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Germany) In English & German/Deutsch. VERY EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Area Calculator; Volumes Calculator; Energy & Work Calculator; Power Calculator; Pressure Calculator; Speed Calculator; Fuel Consumption Calculator; Density Calculator; etc..." DIGITAL DUTCH UNIT CONVERTER  CALCULATOR  DigitalDutch.com VERY EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Energy Calculator; Force Calculator; Speed Calculator; etc..." FRANS' CONVERSION CALCULATORS (METRIC, IMPERIAL, U.S.)  Frans Simon van Leeuwen VERY EXTENSIVE. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Fuel Calculator; Length Calculator; Pressure Calculator; Speed Calculator; Temperature Calculator; Volume Calculator; Weight Calculator..." PRESSURE UNITS CONVERTER  CALCULATOR  Omega Engineering Inc. For more information see Technical Reference or Omega Engineering Inc. SPECIALIST CALCULATORS  F. Tapson & Cleave Books, Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching, University of Exeter, U.K. VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Specialist Calculators; Cleave Books or the Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching UNITS OF MEASURE CALCULATORS  AUTO/TRUCK ETC.  DieselNet, ECOpoint Inc. Unit Conversion Calculators include:
Pressure; Energy; Power; Velocity; Flow Rate; Temperature; Fuel Consumption; etc..." Sulfate Particulates..." WEIGHT CALCULATOR  scalesgalore.com Weight Calculator include:
Troy Ounces (ozt); Pennyweight (dwt); Carats (ct); Ticals; Mommes; Grains; Newtons; Taels (Singapore); Taels (Rep. of China); Taels (Hong Kong)..." 
PAPER ROOL CALCULATORS & APPLETS PAPER TAPE CALCULATOR  Giorgio Arcidiacono VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Sitemap or Alculá Desktop & Mobile Devices Scientific, RPN, etc., Calculators
RPN CALCULATORS, APPLETS, ANIMATIONS & SIMULATIONS FOR GRAPHER/PLOTTER CALCULATORS SEE THE MATHEMATICS CENTER: GRAPHING & PLOTTING CALCULATORS CALCINATOR: FREE MOBILE MATH APP  George Paulos VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE  VERY FAST  VERY CLEVER Calcinator
Financial Calculator
3D Geometry with Formulas; Analytic Geometry with Formulas; Algebraic Formulas; Classical Physics with Formulas; Electronics with Formulas; Statistics with Formulas; Thermodynamics with Formulas; etc..."
Area; Volume; Mass; Temperature; Energy; Force; Times; etc..."
eCALC: SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  Aspen Labs, LLC VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE  VERY FAST  VERY CLEVER. Examples of "eCalc: Scientific Calculator" Features include
Unit Conversion Utility; Equation Solver (with support for complex numbers); Engineering Constants List; Base Conversion Utility; Decimal to Fraction Utility; Supports both Algebraic and Infix Modes; etc..." A SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  V.M. Ponce, Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, San Diego State University VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE, VERY UNIQUE & VERY FAST. For more information see Victor Miguel Ponce's Home Page; Faculty Home Page; Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering or the College of Engineering ALCULÁ'S SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  CALCOLATRICE SCIENTIFICA  Giorgio Arcidiacono VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Available in English/Inglese & Italian/Italiano Scientific Calculator
Supports complex numbers operations. Complex numbers can be input in Cartesian, Polar, or Exponential form. You can also use the calculator to convert to and from cartesian, polar or exponential..." ASTR0PHYSICAL CALCULATOR  C. Dolan, Software Engineer, Sony Creative Software; Hosted by the Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. AstroPhysical Calculator includes:
Physical Constants
Electron charge; Mass of electron; Mass of proton; Mass of neutron; Mass of hydrogen; Avagadro's number; Boltzmann constant; Rydberg constant; etc..."
BIG NUMBER SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  D.A. Alpern, Buenos Aires, Argentina VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Big Number Scientific Calculator is a
CHEMICAL, UNIT CONVERSION & SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  First Year Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Chemical, Unit Conversion & Scientific Calculator includes:
Enter a Chemical, Physical or Mathematical Constant into a Calculation; Convert between common units in Chemistry & Science; Enter a Chemical Formula using standard notation to calculate mass; etc. CHEMISTS SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  periodni.com, Eni Generalic Multimedia Scientific Calculator for Chemists (Text & Images). VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Available in Croatian, English, French, German, Italian, Spainsh. Chemists Scientific Calculator
COCALC2 RPN SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR (JAVA APPLET)  CoHort Software VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. COCALC2 RPN Scientific Calculator
COMPLEX NUMBER CALCULATOR  D.A. Alpern, Buenos Aires, Argentina VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Complex Number Calculator:

Construction Calculator INPUT Values include:
Output Units: "...Feet & Inches or Inches Only..." Rounding precision of the answere includes either: "...1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64, & 1/128..." DERL'S SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  Director: Sape A. Miedema, Dredging Engineering Research Laboratory (DERL), Dredging Engineering, Offshore and Dredging Engineering, Department of Maritime and Transport Technology, Faculty Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. DERL'S Scientific Calculator
GEOMETRIC CALCULATOR  Roger E Critchlow Jr., The Entropy Liberation Front VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Geometric Calculator is

HP25 Calculator
JAVA HP16C EMULATOR (JAVA APPLET)  hp16c.com VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Java HP16C Emulator
"...The emulator is much faster than the original hp16c. This is particularly noticeable during program execution, where the emulator can be up to 1000x faster than original..." "...Programs that used to take hours to run will now finish in just a few seconds..." "...This emulator always displays the entire register X value..." JAVACALC  K. Kikuchi, Japan & Hosted by Mathe Online VERY EXTENSIVE. OCTONION CALCULATOR  G. Dixon, Lincoln, MA VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. Octonion Calculator is
PHYSICS POCKET COMPUTER (JAVASCRIPT): BASIC; SCIENTIFIC; PHYSICS  JeanPol Vigneron, Départment of Physique, Université de Namur, Belgium VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. For more information see Départmnet of Physique REVERSE POLISH NOTATION COMPLEX NUMBER CALCULATOR (JAVA APPLET)  D.A. Alpern, Buenos Aires, Argentina VERY VERY VERY...EXTENSIVE. Reverse Polish Notation Complex Number Calculator is
RPM  POSTFIX CALCULATOR  D. Stevens, School of Mathematics, University of East Anglia, U.K. VERY EXTENSIVE. Postfix Calculator
SCIENTIFIC AND STATISTICAL CALCULATOR  G. Dixon, Lincoln, MA VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Mathematical Ideas in Science or 7 Stones SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR  Porcupine Labor Press VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Porcupine Labor Press SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR FOR CHEMISTS WITH NOTEBOOK  periodni.com, Eni Generalic VERY VERY EXTENSIVE. For more information see Periodic Tables of the Elements, Calculators, and Printable Materials SELECTABLE PRECISION CALCULATOR (JAVA APPLET)  Developers: M.T. Heath, E. VanderZee, J. Schoen, J. Naisbitt, S. Sakshuwong, J. Zou, and N. Exner; Sponsored by: Computational Science and Engineering; M.T. Heath (Fulton Watson Copp Chair Emeritus), Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign, Illinois Selectable Precision Calculator

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